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  1. B cell subpopulations in the spleen have been extensively characterized phenotypically; however, biochemical properties of these cell populations following B cell antigen receptor engagement have not been full...

    Authors: Pierre Antony, Kristen Hoek, Bhaskarjyoti Sarmah and Wasif N. Khan
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91073
  2. Microbes frequently live within multicellular, solid surface-attached assemblages termed biofilms. These microbial communities have architectural features that contribute to population heterogeneity and conseq...

    Authors: Joe J. Harrison, Howard Ceri, Jerome Yerly, Carol A. Stremick, Yaoping Hu, Robert Martinuzzi and Raymond J. Turner
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81194
  3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a commonly used validation tool for confirming gene expression results obtained from microarray analysis; however, microarray and qPCR data often result in disagreement. Th...

    Authors: Jeanine S. Morey, James C. Ryan and Frances M. Van Dolah
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81175
  4. This paper was originally published in Biological Procedures Online (BPO) on March 23, 2006. It was brought to the attention of the journal and authors that reference 74 was incorrect. The original citation for r...

    Authors: M. B. I. Reaz, M. S. Hussain and F. Mohd-Yasin
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81163
  5. In this work we describe protocols for the generation of gene deletions and gene replacements using a temperature sensitive plasmid in Escherichia coli O157:H7. This technology requires flanking DNA to be cloned ...

    Authors: James R. Emmerson, David L. Gally and Andrew J. Roe
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81153
  6. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a wa...

    Authors: Jack M. Gallup and Mark R. Ackermann
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81087
  7. Live cell fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent protein tags derived from jellyfish and coral species has been a successful tool to image proteins and dynamics in many species. Multi-colored aequorea fluoresc...

    Authors: Jianrun Xia, Song Hon H. Kim, Susan Macmillan and Ray Truant
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81063
  8. The application of naked DNA containing type I interferon (IFN) transgenes is a promising potential therapeutic approach for controlling chronic viral infections. Herein, we detail the application of this appr...

    Authors: Bobbie Ann Austin, Cassandra M. James, Peter Härle and Daniel J. J. Carr
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81055
  9. The Chromatin Immunoprecipiation (ChIP) provides a powerful technique for identifying the in vivo association of transcription factors with regulatory elements. However, obtaining meaningful information for promo...

    Authors: Rebecca L. Dryer and Lori R. Covey
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81044
  10. Microtubule inhibitors such as Vinblastine and Paclitaxel are chemotherapy agents that activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint, arresting cells in mitosis and leading to cell death. The pathways that connect m...

    Authors: Hiroshi Y. Yamada and Gary J. Gorbsky
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81036
  11. Pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is known to participate in the β-cell destruction process that occurs in diabetes. It has been described that high glucose level induces a hyperfunctional status which could provoke...

    Authors: Jose M. Mellado-Gil and Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710162
  12. Efficient protein folding and quality control are essential for unperturbed cell viability. Defects in these processes may lead to production of aberrant polypeptides that are either degraded leading to “loss-...

    Authors: Tatiana Soldà, Silvia Olivari and Maurizio Molinari
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710136
  13. We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in...

    Authors: Sergio Encarnación, Magdalena Hernández, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Sandra Contreras, María del Carmen Vargas and Jaime Mora
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710117
  14. Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the fiel...

    Authors: Corinne Jud, Isabelle Schmutz, Gabriele Hampp, Henrik Oster and Urs Albrecht
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710101
  15. We have developed a simple and effective method (Lig-PCR) for monitoring ligation reactions using PCR and primers that are common to many cloning vectors. Ligation mixtures can directly be used as templates an...

    Authors: Prafulla K. Chandra and Stephen K. Wikel
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710093
  16. We describe a new approach for reliably isolating one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR-quality RNA from laser captured cells retrieved from frozen sections previously subjected to immunofluorescent immunohis...

    Authors: Jack M. Gallup, Kenji Kawashima, Ginger Lucero and Mark R. Ackermann
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710070
  17. Mature osteoclasts, multinucleated giant cells responsible for bone resorption, are terminally differentiated cells with a short life span. Recently, we have demonstrated that osteoclast apoptosis is regulated...

    Authors: Toru Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Phillippe Bouillet, Kozo Nakamura, Andreas Strasser and Sakae Tanaka
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710048
  18. Angiogenesis is a complex process involving an ECM and vascular endothelial cells (EC), and is regulated by various angiogenic factors including VEGF. The ability to form a capillary/tube-like network is a spe...

    Authors: Motomu Watanabe, Yayoi Fujioka-Kaneko, Hisayuki Kobayashi, Mamoru Kiniwa, Michihiko Kuwano and Yuji Basaki
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710041
  19. We describe an improved, efficient and reliable method for the vapour-phase silanization of multi-barreled, ion-selective microelectrodes of which the silanized barrel(s) are to be filled with neutral liquid i...

    Authors: Jason S. T. Deveau, Michael I. Lindinger and Bernard Grodzinski
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710031
  20. Cell culturing, and the requisite storage of cell lines at ultra-low temperatures, is used in most laboratories studying or using eukaryotic proteomics, genomics, microarray, and RNA technologies. In this stud...

    Authors: Joe Corsini and Ethan Mann
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710026
  21. To assess the role of sortilin in the sorting and trafficking of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) the function of sortilin was abolished by a dominant-negative mutant and by the use of RNAi. Mutant sorti...

    Authors: Stephane Lefrancois, Maryssa Canuel, Jibin Zeng and Carlos R. Morales
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710017
  22. To date, breast cancer (BC) research is mainly studied with cell lines. These cells were passaged multiple times, acquiring phenotypes, additional mutations and epigenetic changes. These changes make the passa...

    Authors: Kelly E. Corcoran, Prem S. Patel and Pranela Rameshwar
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710008
  23. A simple and non-radioactive technique based on O-cresolpthalein complexone assay was developed to study in vitro non-radioactive calcium (40Ca) deposition by isolated matrix vesicles. Using this technique, the e...

    Authors: Rama Garimella, Joseph B. Sipe and H. Clarke Anderson
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610263
  24. Elucidating the mechanism of over and under expression of proteins is critical in developing a better understanding of cancer. Multiple techniques are used to examine differential expression of proteins in cel...

    Authors: Eric T. Shinohara, Dennis E. Hallahan and Bo Lu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610250
  25. The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early m...

    Authors: Neora Pick, Scott Cameron, Dorit Arad and Yossef Av-Gay
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610220
  26. A method was developed to assess the functional significance of a sequence motif in yeast Upf3p, a protein required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The motif lies at the edge of the Upf3p-Upf2p interac...

    Authors: Renee L. Shirley, M. Rachel Richards and Michael R. Culbertson
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610209
  27. Chromatin structure, determined in part by DNA methylation, is established during differentiation and prevents expression of genes unnecessary for the function of a given cell type. We reported that DNA methyl...

    Authors: Qianjin Lu and Bruce Richardson
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610189
  28. Leukocyte endothelial cell interaction is a fundamentally important process in many disease states. Current methods to analyze such interactions include the parallel-plate flow chamber and intravital microscop...

    Authors: Jessica L. Dunne, Adam P. Goobic, Scott T. Acton and Klaus Ley
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610173
  29. In situ hybridization with 3DNA™ dendrimers is a novel tool for detecting low levels of mRNA in tissue sections and whole embryos. Fluorescently labeled dendrimers were used to identify cells that express mRNA...

    Authors: Jacquelyn Gerhart, Michael Baytion, Jordanna Perlman, Christine Neely, Bridget Hearon, Thor Nilsen, Robert Getts, James Kadushin and Mindy George-Weinstein
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610149
  30. Imatinib (Gleevec) is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading ...

    Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Rubina T. Siddiqui and Javed A. Qureshi
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610144
  31. The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion....

    Authors: Elena Chaves-Pozo, Victoriano Mulero, José Meseguer and Alfonsa García Ayala
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610129
  32. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation play a vital role in the regulation of protein function. In our study of the basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor HAND1, we show that HAND...

    Authors: Victoria E. Centonze, Beth A. Firulli and Anthony B. Firulli
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610078
  33. To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these o...

    Authors: Hans-Jürgen Stark, Axel Szabowski, Norbert E. Fusenig and Nicole Maas-Szabowski
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610055
  34. Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for expe...

    Authors: Oscar Zaragoza and Arturo Casadevall
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610010

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