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Biological Procedures Online

Open Access

Use of chromatin immunoprecipitation (chip) to detect transcription factor binding to highly homologous promoters in chromatin isolated from unstimulated and activated primary human B cells

Biological Procedures Online8:81044

Received: 5 January 2006

Accepted: 29 March 2006


The Chromatin Immunoprecipiation (ChIP) provides a powerful technique for identifying the in vivo association of transcription factors with regulatory elements. However, obtaining meaningful information for promoter interactions is extremely challenging when the promoter is a member of a class of highly homologous elements. Use of PCR primers with small numbers of mutations can limit cross-hybridization with non-targeted sequences and distinguish a pattern of binding for factors with the regulatory element of interest. In this report, we demonstrate the selective in vivo association of NF-κB, p300 and CREB with the human Iγ1 promoter located in the intronic region upstream of the Cγ1 exons in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. These methods have the ability to extend ChIP analysis to promoters with a high degree of homology.

Indexing terms

Gene Expression RegulationTranscription FactorsChromatin ImmunoprecipitationB cells