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  1. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Somayeh Jolany vangah, Camellia Katalani, Hannah A. Boone, Abbas Hajizade, Adna Sijercic and Gholamreza Ahmadian

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:24

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:22

  2. DNA repair pathways, cell cycle arrest checkpoints, and cell death induction are present in cells to process DNA damage and prevent genomic instability caused by various extrinsic and intrinsic ionizing factor...

    Authors: Fatemeh Sadeghi, Marzieh Asgari, Mojdeh Matloubi, Maral Ranjbar, Nahid Karkhaneh Yousefi, Tahereh Azari and Majid Zaki-Dizaji

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  3. Interest in CRISPR technology, an instrumental component of prokaryotic adaptive immunity which enables prokaryotes to detect any foreign DNA and then destroy it, has gained popularity among members of the sci...

    Authors: Somayeh Jolany vangah, Camellia Katalani, Hannah A. Boone, Abbas Hajizade, Adna Sijercic and Gholamreza Ahmadian

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:22

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:24

  4. Currently there are no effective anti-viral drugs for SARS-CoV-2, so the primary line of defense is to detect infected cases as soon as possible. The high rate of contagion for this virus and the highly nonspe...

    Authors: Elena Ekrami, Mahdi Pouresmaieli, Fatemeh Barati, Sahar Asghari, Farzad Ramezani Ziarani, Parvin Shariati and Matin Mamoudifard

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:21

    Content type: Review

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  5. Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (LFH) is among the most crucial factors in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, which can cause back pain, lower extremity pain, cauda equina syndrome and neurogenic claudication....

    Authors: Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Ting Kuo, Che-Hao Tsao, Yan-Jye Shyong, Shu-Hsien Shih and Ting-Yuan Tu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:20

    Content type: Research

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  6. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or (2019-nCoV) with unknown origin spread in Hubei province of China. The epidemic disease caused by SA...

    Authors: Hanie Esakandari, Mohsen Nabi-Afjadi, Javad Fakkari-Afjadi, Navid Farahmandian, Seyed-Mohsen Miresmaeili and Elham Bahreini

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:19

    Content type: Review

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  7. Improper regulation of apoptosis has been postulated as one of the main factors that contributes to the etiology and/or progression of several prevalent diseases, including ischemic stroke and neurodegenerativ...

    Authors: Gemma Serrano-Heras, Inmaculada Díaz-Maroto, Beatriz Castro-Robles, Blanca Carrión, Ana B. Perona-Moratalla, Julia Gracia, Sandra Arteaga, Francisco Hernández-Fernández, Jorge García-García, Oscar Ayo-Martín and Tomás Segura

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:17

    Content type: Methodology

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  8. We analyzed the bacterial communities of the nasopharynx in 40 SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients. All infected patients had a mild COVID-19 disease. We did not find statistically significant differen...

    Authors: Flavio De Maio, Brunella Posteraro, Francesca Romana Ponziani, Paola Cattani, Antonio Gasbarrini and Maurizio Sanguinetti

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:18

    Content type: Short report

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  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) that was emerged as a new member of coronaviruses since December 2019 in Wuhan, China an...

    Authors: Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Hassan Nosrati, Mahyar Eftekhari, Reza Falak and Majid Khoshmirsafa

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:16

    Content type: Research

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  10. COVID-19 disease with a high rate of contagious and highly nonspecific symptoms, is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Most people who fall sick with COVID-19 will experience mild ...

    Authors: Fatemeh Barati, Mahdi Pouresmaieli, Elena Ekrami, Sahar Asghari, Farzad Ramezani Ziarani and Matin Mamoudifard

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:15

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  11. The generation of point mutations is a major tool for evaluating the roles of specific nucleotides or amino acids within the regulatory or functional landscape. However, examination of these mutations in vivo ...

    Authors: Tgst Levi, Anna Sloutskin, Rachel Kalifa, Tamar Juven-Gershon and Offer Gerlitz

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:14

    Content type: Methodology

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  12. Three-dimensional imaging modalities for optically dense connective tissues such as tendons are limited and typically have a single imaging methodological endpoint. Here, we have developed a bimodal procedure ...

    Authors: Neil Marr, Mark Hopkinson, Andrew P. Hibbert, Andrew A. Pitsillides and Chavaunne T. Thorpe

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  13. Circulating small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and its associated proteins are of great interest in the early detection of many diseases. However, there is no gold standard for plasma sEVs isolation, especial...

    Authors: Rui Wei, Libo Zhao, Guanyi Kong, Xiang Liu, Shengtao Zhu, Shutian Zhang and Li Min

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:12

    Content type: Research

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  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears with common symptoms including fever, dry cough, and fatigue, as well as some less common s...

    Authors: Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza Falak and Elham Bahreini

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:11

    Content type: Research

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  15. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as a universal novel class of eukaryotic non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules and are becoming a new research hotspot in RNA biology. They form a covalent loop without 5′ cap ...

    Authors: Peerzada Tajamul Mumtaz, Qamar Taban, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Shabir Mir, Zulfkar ul Haq, Sajad Majeed Zargar, Riaz Ahmad Shah and Syed Mudasir Ahmad

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:10

    Content type: Review

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  16. The BioBrick construction as an approach in synthetic biology provides the ability to assemble various gene fragments. To date, different BioBrick strategies have been exploited for assembly and cloning of a v...

    Authors: Amin Tavassoli, Safoura Soleymani, Alireza Haghparast, Gholamreza Hashemi Tabar, Mohammad Reza Bassami and Hesam Dehghani

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:9

    Content type: Research

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  17. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging zoonotic viral infection, which was started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and transmitted to other countries worldwide as a pandemic outbreak. Iran is one...

    Authors: Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Hassan Nosrati and Ramezan Ali Taheri

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. The human Caco-2 cell line is a common in vitro model of the intestinal epithelial barrier. As the intestine is a major interface in cholesterol turnover and represents a non-biliary pathway for cholesterol ex...

    Authors: Verena Hiebl, Daniel Schachner, Angela Ladurner, Elke H. Heiss, Herbert Stangl and Verena M. Dirsch

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  19. Serine hydrolases (SHs) are a functionally diverse family of enzymes playing pivotal roles in health and disease and have emerged as important therapeutic targets in many clinical conditions. Activity-based pr...

    Authors: Niina Aaltonen, Prosanta K. Singha, Hermina Jakupović, Thomas Wirth, Haritha Samaranayake, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Kirsi Rilla, Markku Varjosalo, Laura E. Edgington-Mitchell, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Marcin Drag, Sara Kälvälä, Eemeli Moisio, Juha R. Savinainen and Jarmo T. Laitinen

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:6

    Content type: Research

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  20. The toxicity and side effects caused by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) after radical surgery for lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) lead to early termination frequently. This study was conducted to provide an objective ba...

    Authors: Qin Wang, Lijing Jiao, Shengfei Wang, Peiqi Chen, Ling Bi, Di Zhou, Jialin Yao, Jiaqi Li, Liyu Wang, Zhiwei Chen, Yingjie Jia, Ziwen Zhang, Weisheng Shen, Weirong Zhu, Jianfang Xu, Yong Gao…

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:5

    Content type: Research

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  21. Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models.

    Authors: Hui Liu, Tao Lu, Gert-Jan Kremers, Ann L. B. Seynhaeve and Timo L. M. ten Hagen

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  22. A large number of studies have suggested a correlation between the status of telomeres and disease risk. High-throughput quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (HT Q-FISH) is a highly accurate telomer...

    Authors: Nuria de Pedro, María Díez, Irene García, Jorge García, Lissette Otero, Luis Fernández, Beatriz García, Rut González, Sara Rincón, Diego Pérez, Estefanía Rodríguez, Enrique Segovia and Pilar Najarro

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:2

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including hyaluronic acid (HA), dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are essential components of the bone and cartilage tissues. CS isolated from the cartilage tissue o...

    Authors: Nawras Talmoudi, Noureddine Ghariani and Saloua Sadok

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:1

    Content type: Research

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  24. Liver injury associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a frequent and severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and remains a major cause of transplant-related mortality. ...

    Authors: Lukun Zhou, Shuang Liu, Zhao Wang, Jianfeng Yao, Wenbin Cao, Shulian Chen, Wenjun Xie, Shuqing Feng, Yuanfu Xu, Tao Cheng, Mingzhe Han and Sizhou Feng

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Lysine post-translational modifications are important regulators of protein function. Proteomic and biochemical approaches have resulted in identification of several lysine modifications, including acetylation...

    Authors: Yun Wei, Wan-Jie Yang, Qi-Jun Wang, Peng-Cheng Lin, Jian-Yuan Zhao, Wei Xu, Shi-Min Zhao and Xia-Di He

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:23

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  26. IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing of XBP1 is emerging as a biomarker in several disease states and is indicative of activation of the unfolded protein response sensor IRE1. Splicing of XBP1 mRNA results in t...

    Authors: Stuart Creedican, Aaron Talty, Stephen P. Fitzgerald, Afshin Samali, Ciarán Richardson, Adrienne M. Gorman and Kenneth Martin

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:22

    Content type: Methodology

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  27. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds more than half of the world’s population. Ratooning rice is an economical alternative to the second seasonal rice, thus increasing the yield of ratooning rice is highly important.

    Authors: Qing Liu, Yi Su, Yunhua Zhu, Keqin Peng, Bin Hong, Ruozhong Wang, Mahmoud Gaballah and Langtao Xiao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:21

    Content type: Research

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  28. Mammalian gonadal development is crucial for fertility. Sexual differentiation, meiosis and gametogenesis are critical events in the process of gonadal development. Abnormalities in any of these events may cau...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Geng G. Tian, Zhuxia Zheng, Bo Li, Qinghe Xing and Ji Wu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Biofilms are communities of aggregated, matrix-embedded microbial cells showing a high tolerance to an in principle adequate antibiotic therapy, often resulting in treatment failure. A major challenge in the m...

    Authors: Lara Thieme, Anita Hartung, Kristina Tramm, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Klaus D. Jandt, Oliwia Makarewicz and Mathias W. Pletz

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:18

    Content type: Commentary

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  30. The presence of residual DNA carried by biological products in the body may lead to an increased oncogenicity, infectivity, and immunomodulatory risk. Therefore, current agencies including WHO, EU, and the FDA...

    Authors: Weifeng Zheng, Lin Jiang, Qing Lei, Jun Yang, Xuefeng Gao, Wanru Wang, Yanli Zhang, Tao Kong, Qiaoli Chen and Gang Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:17

    Content type: Methodology

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  31. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with important post-transcriptional regulatory functions. To reveal the function of miRNAs in vivo, the critical step is to change their expression levels in the ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Xinran Wang, Xuemei Li, Qian Pu, Chengyi Luo, Lili Xu, Xinyue Peng and Shiping Liu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:16

    Content type: Methodology

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  32. Couples who carry α-thalassemia-1 deletion are at 25% risk of having a fetus with hemoglobin Bart’s hydrops fetalis. Southeast Asian deletion (−-(SEA)) is the most common type of α-thalassemia 1 among Southeas...

    Authors: Supansa Pata, Matawee Pongpaiboon, Witida Laopajon, Thongperm Munkongdee, Kittiphong Paiboonsukwong, Sakorn Pornpresert, Suthat Fucharoen and Watchara Kasinrerk

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:15

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. Salinity as a most significant environmental challenges affects the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. In this study, the ionic and iso-osmotic effects of salt stress were investigated in Aeluropus litt...

    Authors: Farzaneh Fatemi, Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemi-petroudi, Ghorbanali Nematzadeh, Hossein Askari and Mohammad Reza Abdollahi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:14

    Content type: Research

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  34. For analysis of the tumor microenvironment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissue samples, it is desirable to obtain information about counts and distribution of different macrophage subtypes. Until n...

    Authors: Marcus Wagner, René Hänsel, Sarah Reinke, Julia Richter, Michael Altenbuchinger, Ulf-Dietrich Braumann, Rainer Spang, Markus Löffler and Wolfram Klapper

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  35. Patient-derived organoids (PDO) technology represents an emerging tool for the study of tumor biology and drug responsiveness, thus being useful to design personalized medicine approaches. Despite several stud...

    Authors: S. Mazzucchelli, F. Piccotti, R. Allevi, M. Truffi, L. Sorrentino, L. Russo, M. Agozzino, L. Signati, A. Bonizzi, L. Villani and F. Corsi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:12

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a novel mechanism of tumor blood supply distinct from endothelial vessel (EV). VM is associated with malignancy, invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Hitherto a noninvasive me...

    Authors: Yue-tao Zhou, Wei-wei Cai, Yue Li, Xiao Jiang, Lei Feng, Qiao-ying Zhu, Yan-ling Liu, Yu-xiao Chen, Shuang-shuang Li, Bin Du, Florian Lang, Peng-xi Wu and Li-ying Qiu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:11

    Content type: Research

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  37. It has come to the authors’ attention that the representative image of the unstimulated UMSCC1 spheroid at Day 1 in Fig. 1a was selected from the wrong data set.

    Authors: Cameron Goertzen, Denise Eymael and Marco Magalhaes

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:10

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:20

  38. A common experimental rodent model for stroke includes induction by a technique in which middle cerebral artery is transiently (MCAO-t) or permanently (MCAO-p) occluded by catheterization. However, this model ...

    Authors: Matthew Boyko, Ruslan Kuts, Benjamin F. Gruenbaum, Philip Tsenter, Julia Grinshpun, Dmitry Frank, Vladislav Zvenigorodsky, Israel Melamed, Evgeni Brotfain and Alexander Zlotnik

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:9

    Content type: Methodology

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  39. The soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and its allies are important nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts that cause N2-fixing nodules on the roots of legumes. Chromosomal ß-glucuronidase gene (uidA) transcripti...

    Authors: Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Tai-Jung Wu and Regina Javier

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:8

    Content type: Methodology

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  40. Antibodies are commonly used to detect or isolate proteins from biological samples. Much attention has been paid to the potential for poorly-characterized antibodies to lead to misleading results, but antibody-in...

    Authors: Marianne K. O. Grant, Samantha L. Shapiro, Karen H. Ashe, Peng Liu and Kathleen R. Zahs

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:6

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  41. HER3 is the third member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR) family, and unlike its other family members, is unique due to its minimal intrinsic kinase activity. As a result, HER3 has to i...

    Authors: Xiaolong Liu, Shuang Liu, Hui Lyu, Adam I. Riker, Yamin Zhang and Bolin Liu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:5

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  42. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized, membrane-bound structures secreted by cells and play critical roles in mediating intercellular signaling. EVs based on their size as well as mechanisms of biosynthe...

    Authors: Abir Mondal, K. A. Ashiq, Prashant Phulpagar, Divya Kumari Singh and Anjali Shiras

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:4

    Content type: Methodology

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  43. Bone marrow derived stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a clonogenic cell population that is characterized by self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into osteoblasts, and other mesenchymal cell types. ...

    Authors: Basem M. Abdallah, Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Ashraf M. Abdel-Moneim, Nicholas Ditzel and Moustapha Kassem

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:3

    Content type: Research

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  44. Long-term organotypic culture of adult tissues not only open up possibilities for studying complex structures of explants in vitro, but also can be employed e.g. to investigate pathological changes, their fing...

    Authors: Sabrina Friebe and Stefan G. Mayr

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:2

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  45. Nematodes are used in many different fields of science, including environmental and biomedical research. Counting and/or estimating nematode numbers is required during research. Although being one of the most ...

    Authors: Marcelo Estrella Josende, Silvana Manske Nunes, Larissa Müller, Marlize Ferreira-Cravo, José Marìa Monserrat and Juliane Ventura-Lima

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:1

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  46. Previous studies show various results obtained from different motif finders for an identical dataset. This is largely due to the fact that these tools use different strategies and possess unique features for d...

    Authors: Ngoc Tam L. Tran and Chun-Hsi Huang

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Tocotrienols (T3) have been shown to represent a very important part of the vitamin E family since they have opened new opportunities to prevent or treat a multitude of age-related chronic diseases. The benefi...

    Authors: Marco Malavolta, Elisa Pierpaoli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Maurizio Cardelli, Francesco Piacenza and Mauro Provinciali

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:22

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

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