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  1. Content type: Research

    Mammalian gonadal development is crucial for fertility. Sexual differentiation, meiosis and gametogenesis are critical events in the process of gonadal development. Abnormalities in any of these events may cau...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Geng G. Tian, Zhuxia Zheng, Bo Li, Qinghe Xing and Ji Wu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:20

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  2. Content type: Commentary

    Biofilms are communities of aggregated, matrix-embedded microbial cells showing a high tolerance to an in principle adequate antibiotic therapy, often resulting in treatment failure. A major challenge in the m...

    Authors: Lara Thieme, Anita Hartung, Kristina Tramm, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Klaus D. Jandt, Oliwia Makarewicz and Mathias W. Pletz

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:18

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    The presence of residual DNA carried by biological products in the body may lead to an increased oncogenicity, infectivity, and immunomodulatory risk. Therefore, current agencies including WHO, EU, and the FDA...

    Authors: Weifeng Zheng, Lin Jiang, Qing Lei, Jun Yang, Xuefeng Gao, Wanru Wang, Yanli Zhang, Tao Kong, Qiaoli Chen and Gang Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:17

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  4. Content type: Methodology

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with important post-transcriptional regulatory functions. To reveal the function of miRNAs in vivo, the critical step is to change their expression levels in the ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Xinran Wang, Xuemei Li, Qian Pu, Chengyi Luo, Lili Xu, Xinyue Peng and Shiping Liu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:16

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  5. Content type: Methodology

    Couples who carry α-thalassemia-1 deletion are at 25% risk of having a fetus with hemoglobin Bart’s hydrops fetalis. Southeast Asian deletion (−-(SEA)) is the most common type of α-thalassemia 1 among Southeas...

    Authors: Supansa Pata, Matawee Pongpaiboon, Witida Laopajon, Thongperm Munkongdee, Kittiphong Paiboonsukwong, Sakorn Pornpresert, Suthat Fucharoen and Watchara Kasinrerk

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:15

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  6. Content type: Research

    Salinity as a most significant environmental challenges affects the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. In this study, the ionic and iso-osmotic effects of salt stress were investigated in Aeluropus litt...

    Authors: Farzaneh Fatemi, Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemi-petroudi, Ghorbanali Nematzadeh, Hossein Askari and Mohammad Reza Abdollahi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:14

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    For analysis of the tumor microenvironment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissue samples, it is desirable to obtain information about counts and distribution of different macrophage subtypes. Until n...

    Authors: Marcus Wagner, René Hänsel, Sarah Reinke, Julia Richter, Michael Altenbuchinger, Ulf-Dietrich Braumann, Rainer Spang, Markus Löffler and Wolfram Klapper

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:13

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  8. Content type: Methodology

    Patient-derived organoids (PDO) technology represents an emerging tool for the study of tumor biology and drug responsiveness, thus being useful to design personalized medicine approaches. Despite several stud...

    Authors: S. Mazzucchelli, F. Piccotti, R. Allevi, M. Truffi, L. Sorrentino, L. Russo, M. Agozzino, L. Signati, A. Bonizzi, L. Villani and F. Corsi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:12

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  9. Content type: Research

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a novel mechanism of tumor blood supply distinct from endothelial vessel (EV). VM is associated with malignancy, invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Hitherto a noninvasive me...

    Authors: Yue-tao Zhou, Wei-wei Cai, Yue Li, Xiao Jiang, Lei Feng, Qiao-ying Zhu, Yan-ling Liu, Yu-xiao Chen, Shuang-shuang Li, Bin Du, Florian Lang, Peng-xi Wu and Li-ying Qiu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:11

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  10. Content type: Correction

    It has come to the authors’ attention that the representative image of the unstimulated UMSCC1 spheroid at Day 1 in Fig. 1a was selected from the wrong data set.

    Authors: Cameron Goertzen, Denise Eymael and Marco Magalhaes

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:10

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    The original article was published in Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:20

  11. Content type: Methodology

    A common experimental rodent model for stroke includes induction by a technique in which middle cerebral artery is transiently (MCAO-t) or permanently (MCAO-p) occluded by catheterization. However, this model ...

    Authors: Matthew Boyko, Ruslan Kuts, Benjamin F. Gruenbaum, Philip Tsenter, Julia Grinshpun, Dmitry Frank, Vladislav Zvenigorodsky, Israel Melamed, Evgeni Brotfain and Alexander Zlotnik

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:9

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  12. Content type: Methodology

    The soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and its allies are important nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts that cause N2-fixing nodules on the roots of legumes. Chromosomal ß-glucuronidase gene (uidA) transcripti...

    Authors: Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Tai-Jung Wu and Regina Javier

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:8

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  13. Content type: Short report

    Antibodies are commonly used to detect or isolate proteins from biological samples. Much attention has been paid to the potential for poorly-characterized antibodies to lead to misleading results, but antibody-in...

    Authors: Marianne K. O. Grant, Samantha L. Shapiro, Karen H. Ashe, Peng Liu and Kathleen R. Zahs

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:6

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  14. Content type: Review

    HER3 is the third member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR) family, and unlike its other family members, is unique due to its minimal intrinsic kinase activity. As a result, HER3 has to i...

    Authors: Xiaolong Liu, Shuang Liu, Hui Lyu, Adam I. Riker, Yamin Zhang and Bolin Liu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:5

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  15. Content type: Methodology

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized, membrane-bound structures secreted by cells and play critical roles in mediating intercellular signaling. EVs based on their size as well as mechanisms of biosynthe...

    Authors: Abir Mondal, K. A. Ashiq, Prashant Phulpagar, Divya Kumari Singh and Anjali Shiras

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:4

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  16. Content type: Research

    Bone marrow derived stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a clonogenic cell population that is characterized by self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into osteoblasts, and other mesenchymal cell types. ...

    Authors: Basem M. Abdallah, Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Ashraf M. Abdel-Moneim, Nicholas Ditzel and Moustapha Kassem

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:3

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  17. Content type: Methodology

    Long-term organotypic culture of adult tissues not only open up possibilities for studying complex structures of explants in vitro, but also can be employed e.g. to investigate pathological changes, their fing...

    Authors: Sabrina Friebe and Stefan G. Mayr

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:2

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    Nematodes are used in many different fields of science, including environmental and biomedical research. Counting and/or estimating nematode numbers is required during research. Although being one of the most ...

    Authors: Marcelo Estrella Josende, Silvana Manske Nunes, Larissa Müller, Marlize Ferreira-Cravo, José Marìa Monserrat and Juliane Ventura-Lima

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:1

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  19. Content type: Research

    Previous studies show various results obtained from different motif finders for an identical dataset. This is largely due to the fact that these tools use different strategies and possess unique features for d...

    Authors: Ngoc Tam L. Tran and Chun-Hsi Huang

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:23

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  20. Content type: Review

    Tocotrienols (T3) have been shown to represent a very important part of the vitamin E family since they have opened new opportunities to prevent or treat a multitude of age-related chronic diseases. The benefi...

    Authors: Marco Malavolta, Elisa Pierpaoli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Maurizio Cardelli, Francesco Piacenza and Mauro Provinciali

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:22

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  21. Content type: Research

    With the increasing discovery of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), the application of functional techniques that could have very specific, efficient, and robust effects and readouts is necessary. Here, we have ap...

    Authors: Khadijeh Zare, Milad Shademan, Mohammad M. Ghahramani Seno and Hesam Dehghani

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:21

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  22. Content type: Methodology

    Invadopodia are actin-rich, proteolytic structures that enable cancer cell to invade into the surrounding tissues. Several in vitro invasion assays have been used in the literature ranging from directional qua...

    Authors: Cameron Goertzen, Denise Eymael and Marco Magalhaes

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:20

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:10

  23. Content type: Methodology

    Personalised medicine is nowadays a major objective in oncology. Molecular characterization of tumours through NGS offers the possibility to find possible therapeutic targets in a time- and cost-effective way....

    Authors: J. M. Rosa-Rosa, T Caniego-Casas, S Leskela, G Muñoz, F del Castillo, P Garrido and J Palacios

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:19

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  24. Content type: Short report

    Several methods for the quantification of human anti-HBs, an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), have been developed based on enzyme reaction, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and radioactivity fo...

    Authors: Yong Won Shin, Dong-Hyung Cho, Gi Won Song and Se-Ho Kim

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:18

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  25. Content type: Research

    The HER3 receptor functions as a major cause of drug resistance in cancer treatment. It is believed that therapeutic targeting of HER3 is required to improve patient outcomes. It is not clear whether a novel s...

    Authors: Hui Lyu, Jingcao Huang, Zhimin He and Bolin Liu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:16

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  26. Content type: Methodology

    In vitro studies of osteoblasts traditionally use Alizarin Red as a golden standard for the detection and quantification of mineralization, which is a marker of osteoblast differentiation. However, this method...

    Authors: Anastassia Serguienko, Meng Yu Wang and Ola Myklebost

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:14

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  27. Content type: Research

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a skeletal disease of fast growing chicken and other avian species. It is characterized by an avascular and non-mineralized growth plate, which leads to a deformed tibial bone a...

    Authors: Mujahid Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Aoyun Li, Xiong Jiang, Yaping Wang, Jialu Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Wangyuan Yao, Shijin Yang and Jiakui Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:15

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  28. Content type: Methodology

    Although genomic DNA isolation using the Chelex 100 resin is rapid and inexpensive, the DNA obtained by this method has a low concentration in solution and contains suspended impurities. The presence of debris...

    Authors: Utkarsha A. Singh, Mukta Kumari and Soumya Iyengar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:12

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  29. Content type: Research

    Kochia scoparia is a dicotyledonous annual herb and belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. Genetic diversity and resistance to drought stress of this plant has made it widely scattered in different regions which co...

    Authors: Leila Fahmideh and Ziba Fooladvand

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:11

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  30. Content type: Research

    Gastric cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages and the outcome of the treatment is often poor. Therefore, identifyi...

    Authors: Yu-Chang Chuang, Hsin-Yi Wu, Yu-Ling Lin, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Cheng-Hsun Chuang, Ting-Yan Jian, Pin-Rong Chen, Yuan-Ching Chang, Chi-Hsin Lin, Tse-Hung Huang, Chao-Ching Wang, Yi-Lin Chan and Kuang-Wen Liao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:10

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  31. Content type: Methodology

    Soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) forms an endosymbiotic partnership with Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) roots which results in root nodules. The bacteria live within root nodules where the...

    Authors: Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Julia M. Mesa, Regina Javier and Feng-Xia Liu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:8

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  32. Content type: Research

    To evaluate the effect of qi-nourishing essence-replenishing Chinese herbal medicine combined with chemotherapy in survival of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients with essence and qi deficiency.

    Authors: Yabin Gong, Zhenye Xu, Changjuan Jin, Haibin Deng, Zhongqi Wang, Weidong Zhou, Ming Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao and Lifang Wang

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:9

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  33. Content type: Research

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), extracellular structures composed of decondensed chromatin and antimicrobial molecules, are released in a process called NETosis. NETs, which are part of normal host defe...

    Authors: Ryan Rebernick, Lauren Fahmy, Christopher Glover, Mandar Bawadekar, Daeun Shim, Caitlyn L. Holmes, Nicole Rademacher, Hemanth Potluri, Christie M. Bartels and Miriam A. Shelef

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:7

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  34. Content type: Methodology

    Subcellular localization of coding and non-coding RNAs has emerged as major regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in various cell types and many organisms. However, techniques that enable detection of the s...

    Authors: Natsumi Takei, Takuma Nakamura, Shohei Kawamura, Yuki Takada, Yui Satoh, Atsushi P. Kimura and Tomoya Kotani

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:6

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  35. Content type: Research

    Hierarchical Sample clustering (HSC) is widely performed to examine associations within expression data obtained from microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Researchers have investigated the HSC results wit...

    Authors: Shitao Zhao, Jianqiang Sun, Kentaro Shimizu and Koji Kadota

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:5

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  36. Content type: Research

    Dendritic cells (DCs), which can be used as anti-cancer vaccines, are generally obtained in vitro from isolated CD14+ monocytes (MoDCs). This generates high cell numbers and allows instructing DCs to guarantee ef...

    Authors: Graça S Marques, Zélia Silva and Paula A. Videira

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:4

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  37. Content type: Methodology

    Apically located tight junctions in airway epithelium perform a fundamental role in controlling macromolecule migration through paracellular spaces. Alterations in their expression may lead to disruptions in b...

    Authors: Alysia G. Buckley, Kevin Looi, Thomas Iosifidis, Kak-Ming Ling, Erika N. Sutanto, Kelly M. Martinovich, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Luke W. Garratt, Nicole C. Shaw, Francis J. Lannigan, Alexander N. Larcombe, Graeme Zosky, Darryl A. Knight, Paul J. Rigby, Anthony Kicic and Stephen M. Stick

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:3

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  38. Content type: Review

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an indispensable role in cancer prevention and treatment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a key component of TCM and has been practiced for thousands of years. A numbe...

    Authors: Lijing Jiao, Ling Bi, Yan Lu, Qin Wang, Yabin Gong, Jun Shi and Ling Xu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:1

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  39. Content type: Methodology

    Transcriptomic profiling of ex vivo cultured human limbal epithelial stem cells (hLESCs) will foster better understanding of corneal physiology and novel treatment paradigms to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSC...

    Authors: Lei Liu, Frederik Mølgaard Nielsen, Simone Elkjær Riis, Jeppe Emmersen, Trine Fink, Jesper Østergaard Hjortdal, Chris Bath and Vladimir Zachar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:15

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  40. Content type: Methodology

    Human trefoil factor (TFF) peptides consist of three members: TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3. TFF3 is the most abundant TFF peptide in saliva. TFF3 homodimer was suggested to be involved in apoptosis inhibition and malig...

    Authors: Saichit Khummuang, Waraporn Phanphrom, Witida Laopajon, Watchara Kasinrerk, Ponlatham Chaiyarit and Supansa Pata

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:14

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  41. Content type: Research

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful biotechnological tool for transgenic animal production using genetically modified somatic cells (GMSCs). However, there are several limitations preventing succe...

    Authors: Kiyoung Eun, Seon-Ung Hwang, Yeon Woo Jeong, Sunyoung Seo, Seon Yong Lee, Woo Suk Hwang, Sang-Hwan Hyun and Hyunggee Kim

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:13

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  42. Content type: Short report

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has been widely used for studying the structure and function of proteins. A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based multiple site-directed plasmid mutagenesis method with...

    Authors: Ting-Yu Kuo, Chung-Che Tsai and Hua-Wen Fu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:12

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  43. Content type: Methodology

    Immunotherapy is a very fast expanding field within drug discovery and, hence, rapid and inexpensive expression of antibodies would be extremely valuable. Antibodies are, however, difficult to express. Multifu...

    Authors: Xiaotian T. Fang, Dag Sehlin, Lars Lannfelt, Stina Syvänen and Greta Hultqvist

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:11

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  44. Content type: Research

    Genomic loci associated with histone marks are typically analyzed by immunoprecipitation of the chromatin followed by quantitative-PCR (ChIP-qPCR) or high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). Chromatin can be eit...

    Authors: Sarah-Anne David, Benoît Piégu, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Maëlle Pannetier, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Sabine Crochet, Thierry Bordeau, Nathalie Couroussé, Aurélien Brionne, Yves Bigot, Anne Collin and Vincent Coustham

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:10

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  45. Content type: Methodology

    Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the precursors of the gametes. During pre-natal development, PGC undergo an epigenetic reprogramming when bulk DNA demethylation occurs and is followed by sex-specific de novo m...

    Authors: Isabelle Hernandez Cantão, Renato Borges Tesser and Taiza Stumpp

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:9

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