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  1. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling system used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression within a population. QS systems in Gram negative bacteria consist of transcription factors of the...

    Authors: Erin K. Shiner, Sheila Reddy, Cody Timmons, Guigen Li, Simon C. Williams and Kendra P. Rumbaugh
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610268
  2. Recombinant production and biochemical analysis of actin mutants has been hampered by the fact that actin has an absolute requirement for the eukaryotic chaperone CCT to reach its native state. We therefore ha...

    Authors: Heidi Rommelaere, Davy Waterschoot, Katrien Neirynck, Joël Vandekerckhove and Christophe Ampe
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610235
  3. Substitution patterns among nucleotides are often assumed to be constant in phylogenetic analyses. Although variation in the average rate of substitution among sites is commonly accounted for, variation in the...

    Authors: Neeraja M. Krishnan, Sameer Z. Raina and David D. Pollock
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610180
  4. Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) allows imaging of the structure and the assessment of the function of biological specimens in their physiological environment. In DFM, the cantilever is oscillated at a given fre...

    Authors: Ferry Kienberger, Rong Zhu, Rosita Moser, Christian Rankl, Dieter Blaas and Peter Hinterdorfer
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610120
  5. In synaptic vesicles, the estimated concentration of the excitatory amino acid glutamate is 100–150 mM. It was recently discovered that VGLUT1, previously characterized as an inorganic phosphate transporter (B...

    Authors: Søren S. L. Andersen
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610105
  6. High throughput detection of differential expression of genes is an efficient means of identifying genes and pathways that may play a role in biological systems under certain experimental conditions. There exi...

    Authors: Shirin Munir, Sushmita Singh, Kuljeet Kaur and Vivek Kapur
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610094
  7. The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a novel mitochondrial protein, is involved in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis through its mediation of the intramitochondrial transport of the ...

    Authors: Pulak R. Manna, Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi and Douglas M. Stocco
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610083
  8. Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cys...

    Authors: Jun Li, Wen-Bao Zhang and Donald P. McManus
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610067
  9. Light scattering and standard stopped-flow techniques were used to monitor rapid association of ribosomal subunits during initiation of eubacterial protein synthesis. The effects of the initiation factors IF1,...

    Authors: Ayman Antoun, Michael Y. Pavlov, Tanel Tenson and Måns Ehrenberg
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610035
  10. The UBA domain is a conserved sequence motif among polyubiquitin binding proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate a systematic, high throughput approach to identification of UBA domain-interacting proteins...

    Authors: Julia W. Pridgeon, Thangiah Geetha and Marie W. Wooten
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51228
  11. It is widely acknowledged that the presence of extracellular matrix components as substrates can drastically modulate the phenotype and gene expression of cultured cells, including tumor cells. A number of pub...

    Authors: Rosalia Sirchia, Valentina Ciacciofera and Claudio Luparello
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51222
  12. Integrin adhesion molecules have important adhesion and signaling functions. They also play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Over the past few years we have described a T cell ad...

    Authors: Raymond L. Yung, Donna Ray, Ru Ran Mo and Jun Chen
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51211
  13. The discovery of oncogenes and signal transduction pathways important for mitogenesis has triggered the development of target-specific small molecule anti-cancer compounds. As exemplified by imatinib (Gleevec)...

    Authors: Mohammad Azam, Tal Raz, Valentina Nardi, Sarah L. Opitz and George Q. Daley
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51204
  14. We developed a new 2-day protocol for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from human monocytesin vitro. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 are sufficient to generate immature...

    Authors: Bianca Obermaier, Marc Dauer, Jan Herten, Katharina Schad, Stefan Endres and Andreas Eigler
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51197
  15. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is capable of swarming over semi-solid surfaces. Although its swarming behavior shares many readily observable similarities with other swarming bacteria, t...

    Authors: Wook Kim and Michael G. Surette
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51189
  16. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity is currently believed to be one of the key immunologic mechanisms responsible for the prevention or attenuation of HIV-1 infection. The induction of CD8+ T cell activ...

    Authors: Supriya D. Mahajan, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Stanley A. Schwartz, Ram P. Chawda and Madhavan P. N. Nair
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51182
  17. The 72 kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) is a molecular chaperone that binds native protein with low affinity. These interactions can alter function of the substrate, a property known as HSP-mediated activity con...

    Authors: Xinsheng Zhang and Michael Oglesbee
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51170
  18. Assembly of DNA into chromatin allows for the formation of a barrier that protects naked DNA from protein and chemical agents geared to degrade or metabolize DNA. Chromatin assembly occurs whenever a length of...

    Authors: Troy A. A. Harkness, Terra G. Arnason, Charmaine Legrand and Ashley Lone
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51162
  19. Here we describe a detailed methodology to study the function of genes whose products function during mitosis by dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in cultured cells ofDrosophila melanogaster. This procedure is p...

    Authors: Helder Maiato, Claudio E. Sunkel and William C. Earnshaw
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51153
  20. We have developed two whole genome-scanning techniques to aid in the discovery of polymorphisms as well as horizontally acquired genes in prokaryotic organisms.First, two-dimensional bacterial genomic display (2D...

    Authors: Chad Malloff, Edie Dullaghan, Alice Li, Richard Stokes, Rachel Fernandez and Wan Lam
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51143
  21. Here we describe in more depth the previously published application of the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) in order to reliably measure low levels of nitric oxide (NO) as released from human e...

    Authors: Thomas R. Räthel, Jürgen F. Leikert, Angelika M. Vollmar and Verena M. Dirsch
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51136
  22. Shotgun phage display cloning involves construction of libraries from randomly fragmented bacterial chromosomal DNA, cloned genes, or eukaryotic cDNAs, into a phagemid vector. The library obtained consists of ...

    Authors: Karin Jacobsson, Anna Rosander, Joakim Bjerketorp and Lars Frykberg
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51123
  23. Microsatellite markers are simple sequence repeats within the mammalian genome that can be used for identifying disease loci, mapping genes of interest as well as studying segregation patterns related to meiot...

    Authors: Lara A. Underkoffler, Joelle N. Collins, Jonathan D. Choi and Rebecca J. Oakey
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51116
  24. In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes underg...

    Authors: Salvador Uribe and José G. Sampedro
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51108
  25. Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms i...

    Authors: Matthew E. Bechard, Sonya Chhatwal, Rosemarie E. Garcia and Madeline E. Rasche
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51069
  26. Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite D...

    Authors: Mikio Kato
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51063
  27. Excitable cells in many endocrine and neuronal systems display rhythms with periodicities on the order of many minutes. To observe firing patterns that represent the output of these rhythms requires a recordin...

    Authors: Craig S. Nunemaker, R. Anthony DeFazio and Suzanne M. Moenter
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51053
  28. Type I interferon (IFN) gene therapy modulates the immune response leading to inflammatory heart disease following cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a murine model of post-viral myocarditis. Efficacy of diffe...

    Authors: Emmalene J. Bartlett, Vanessa S. Cull, Eva N. Mowe, Josephine P. Mansfield and Cassandra M. James
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51043
  29. Relocation into the nucleus of the yeast cytoplasmic linear plasmids was studied using a monitor plasmid pCLU1. InSaccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclearly-relocated pCLU1 replicated in a linear form (termed pTLU-t...

    Authors: Norio Gunge, Hideki Takata, Akira Matsuura and Kohsai Fukuda
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51029
  30. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can activate (in vitro) the nuclear transcription factors known as the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR). CLA was fed at 11 g CLA/kg of feed for 45d to castrated m...

    Authors: W. J. Meadus
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51020
  31. Disarmed versions of the cytotoxin ricin can deliver fused peptides into target cells leading to MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation [Smithet al. J Immunol 2002; 169:99–107]. The ricin delivery vector mus...

    Authors: Daniel C. Smith, Catherine J. Marsden, J. Michael Lord and Lynne M. Roberts
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51013
  32. Real-time PCR methodology can successfully quantitate microchimeric cell populations at a concentration of 100 microchimeric cells/100,000 host cells; however, it has not been successful in quantitating DNA fr...

    Authors: Carol M. Artlett, C. Gennaro Dito and Paul J. Christner
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:10103
  33. There is accumulating evidence that membrane-bound receptors interact with many intracellular proteins. Multiprotein complexes associated with ionotropic receptors have been extensively characterized, but the ...

    Authors: Carine Bécamel, Nathalie Galéotti, Joël Poncet, Patrick Jouin, Aline Dumuis, Joël Bockaert and Philippe Marin
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41094
  34. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B is a pathogen causing latent infection in virtually all humans. Nevertheless, the interaction of HHV-6B with its host cells is poorly understood. Although HHV-6B is approximately 90%...

    Authors: Bodil Øster and Per Höllsberg
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41088
  35. The described method allows for detection of rare linear DNA fragments generated during genomic deletions. The predicted limit of the detection is one DNA molecule per 107 or more cells. The method is based on an...

    Authors: Sergei V. Saveliev
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41070
  36. The cell cycle machinery consists of regulatory proteins that control the progression through the cell cycle ensuring that DNA replication alternates with DNA segregation in mitosis to maintain cell integrity....

    Authors: Andrea Klotzbucher, Gaetan Pascreau, Claude Prigent and Yannick Arlot-Bonnemains
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41062
  37. Established cell lines are invaluable for studying cell and molecular biological questions. A variety of human ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines exist, however, most have acquired significant genetic alterations ...

    Authors: Lesley D. Dunfield, Trevor G. Shepherd and Mark W. Nachtigal
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41055
  38. The “in vitro virus” is a molecular construct to perform evolutionary protein engineering. The “virion(=viral particle)”(mRNA-peptide fusion), is made by bonding a nascent protein with its coding mRNA via puromyc...

    Authors: Ichiro Tabuchi, Sayaka Soramoto, Miho Suzuki, Koichi Nishigaki, Naoto Nemoto and Yuzuru Husimi
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41049
  39. Recent evidence indicates novel role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular gelatinase A (MMP-2), in the regulation of vascular biology that are unrelated to their well-known proteolytic breakdown...

    Authors: Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Christine Zouki, Randy M. Whittal, John S. D. Chan, Sandra T. Davidge and János G. Filep
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41038
  40. We describe here a method for isolating endothelial cells from rat heart blood vessels by means of coronary microperfusion with collagenase. This method makes it possible to obtain high amounts of endothelial ...

    Authors: Silvia Nistri, Luca Mazzetti, Paola Failli and Daniele Bani
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41032
  41. Angiogenesis, a key step in many physiological and pathological processes, involves proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. To study the role of two enzymatic families, serine-proteases and matrix metalloprot...

    Authors: Véronique Masson, Laetitia Devy, Christine Grignet-Debrus, Sarah Bernt, Khalid Bajou, Silvia Blacher, Guy Roland, Yawen Chang, Timothy Fong, Peter Carmeliet, Jean-Michel Foidart and Agnès Noël
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41024
  42. The study of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the process by which they differentiate into committed progenitors has been hampered by the lack of in vitro clonal assays that can support erythroid, myeloid and ...

    Authors: Marcus O. Muench, David L. Suskind and Alicia Bárcena
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2002 4:41010

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