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Table 2 Extraction of drug residues in water and foods of animal origin using ATPS

From: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS): an overview and advances in its applications

Sample Drug ATPS Detection limit Average Extraction Efficiency (%) Recovery (%) Linear Range (μg mL−1) Ref.
Water Roxithromycin 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoraborate – Na2CO3 (IL – salt) 0.03 μg mL−1 90.7 90.0–90.8 1.00–20.00 μg mL−1 [129]
Water Sulfamethoxazole Poly (propylene glycol)400 – NaH2PO4 (polymer – salt) 0.1 μg L−1 99.2 96.0–100.6 2.5–250.0 μg L−1 [169]
Lake Water Chloramphenicol 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride – K2HPO4 (IL – salt) 0.1 ng mL−1 98.5 97.1–101.9 0.5–500 ng mL−1 [170]
Feed Water
Milk
Honey
Feed Water Chloramphenicol 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoraborate – Na3C6H5O7 (IL – salt) 0.3 ng mL−1 90.1 90.4–102.7 2–1000 ng mL−1 [130]
Milk
Honey
Milk Ciprofloxacin Poly (ethylene glycol-ran-propylene glycol) EOPOL31 – K2HPO4 (polymer – salt) 6.8 ng g−1 1st = 97.7 1st = 83.5–90.2 - [171]
Egg 2nd = 85.6 2nd = 83.8–86.8
Shrimp
Milk Sulfonamides 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoraborate – C6H5Na3O7.2H2O (IL – salt) 2.04–2.84 ng mL−1 - 72.32–108.96 8.55–1036.36 ng mL−1 [172]
Honey Tetracycline (TC) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide – sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) TC = 5.8 - 85.5–110.9 TC = 20.1–301.2 [173]
Oxytetracycline (OTC) OTC = 8.2 OTC = 30.3–303.6
Chloramphenicol (CAP) CAP = 4.2 μg kg−1 CAP = 20.4–305.4 μg kg−1
Shrimp Chloramphenicol Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (POELE10) – NaH2PO4 (polymer – salt) 0.8 μg kg−1 99.42 98–100.4 0.5–3.00 μg kg−1 [174]