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  1. HER3 is the third member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR) family, and unlike its other family members, is unique due to its minimal intrinsic kinase activity. As a result, HER3 has to i...

    Authors: Xiaolong Liu, Shuang Liu, Hui Lyu, Adam I. Riker, Yamin Zhang and Bolin Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:5
  2. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized, membrane-bound structures secreted by cells and play critical roles in mediating intercellular signaling. EVs based on their size as well as mechanisms of biosynthe...

    Authors: Abir Mondal, K. A. Ashiq, Prashant Phulpagar, Divya Kumari Singh and Anjali Shiras
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:4
  3. Bone marrow derived stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a clonogenic cell population that is characterized by self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into osteoblasts, and other mesenchymal cell types. ...

    Authors: Basem M. Abdallah, Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Ashraf M. Abdel-Moneim, Nicholas Ditzel and Moustapha Kassem
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:3
  4. Long-term organotypic culture of adult tissues not only open up possibilities for studying complex structures of explants in vitro, but also can be employed e.g. to investigate pathological changes, their fing...

    Authors: Sabrina Friebe and Stefan G. Mayr
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:2
  5. Nematodes are used in many different fields of science, including environmental and biomedical research. Counting and/or estimating nematode numbers is required during research. Although being one of the most ...

    Authors: Marcelo Estrella Josende, Silvana Manske Nunes, Larissa Müller, Marlize Ferreira-Cravo, José Marìa Monserrat and Juliane Ventura-Lima
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:1
  6. Previous studies show various results obtained from different motif finders for an identical dataset. This is largely due to the fact that these tools use different strategies and possess unique features for d...

    Authors: Ngoc Tam L. Tran and Chun-Hsi Huang
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:23
  7. Tocotrienols (T3) have been shown to represent a very important part of the vitamin E family since they have opened new opportunities to prevent or treat a multitude of age-related chronic diseases. The benefi...

    Authors: Marco Malavolta, Elisa Pierpaoli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Maurizio Cardelli, Francesco Piacenza and Mauro Provinciali
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:22
  8. With the increasing discovery of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), the application of functional techniques that could have very specific, efficient, and robust effects and readouts is necessary. Here, we have ap...

    Authors: Khadijeh Zare, Milad Shademan, Mohammad M. Ghahramani Seno and Hesam Dehghani
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:21
  9. Invadopodia are actin-rich, proteolytic structures that enable cancer cell to invade into the surrounding tissues. Several in vitro invasion assays have been used in the literature ranging from directional qua...

    Authors: Cameron Goertzen, Denise Eymael and Marco Magalhaes
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:20

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:10

  10. Personalised medicine is nowadays a major objective in oncology. Molecular characterization of tumours through NGS offers the possibility to find possible therapeutic targets in a time- and cost-effective way....

    Authors: J. M. Rosa-Rosa, T Caniego-Casas, S Leskela, G Muñoz, F del Castillo, P Garrido and J Palacios
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:19
  11. Several methods for the quantification of human anti-HBs, an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), have been developed based on enzyme reaction, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and radioactivity fo...

    Authors: Yong Won Shin, Dong-Hyung Cho, Gi Won Song and Se-Ho Kim
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:18
  12. The HER3 receptor functions as a major cause of drug resistance in cancer treatment. It is believed that therapeutic targeting of HER3 is required to improve patient outcomes. It is not clear whether a novel s...

    Authors: Hui Lyu, Jingcao Huang, Zhimin He and Bolin Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:16
  13. In vitro studies of osteoblasts traditionally use Alizarin Red as a golden standard for the detection and quantification of mineralization, which is a marker of osteoblast differentiation. However, this method...

    Authors: Anastassia Serguienko, Meng Yu Wang and Ola Myklebost
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:14
  14. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a skeletal disease of fast growing chicken and other avian species. It is characterized by an avascular and non-mineralized growth plate, which leads to a deformed tibial bone a...

    Authors: Mujahid Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Aoyun Li, Xiong Jiang, Yaping Wang, Jialu Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Wangyuan Yao, Shijin Yang and Jiakui Li
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:15
  15. Although genomic DNA isolation using the Chelex 100 resin is rapid and inexpensive, the DNA obtained by this method has a low concentration in solution and contains suspended impurities. The presence of debris...

    Authors: Utkarsha A. Singh, Mukta Kumari and Soumya Iyengar
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:12
  16. Kochia scoparia is a dicotyledonous annual herb and belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. Genetic diversity and resistance to drought stress of this plant has made it widely scattered in different regions which co...

    Authors: Leila Fahmideh and Ziba Fooladvand
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:11
  17. Gastric cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages and the outcome of the treatment is often poor. Therefore, identifyi...

    Authors: Yu-Chang Chuang, Hsin-Yi Wu, Yu-Ling Lin, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Cheng-Hsun Chuang, Ting-Yan Jian, Pin-Rong Chen, Yuan-Ching Chang, Chi-Hsin Lin, Tse-Hung Huang, Chao-Ching Wang, Yi-Lin Chan and Kuang-Wen Liao
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:10
  18. Soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) forms an endosymbiotic partnership with Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) roots which results in root nodules. The bacteria live within root nodules where the...

    Authors: Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Julia M. Mesa, Regina Javier and Feng-Xia Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:8
  19. To evaluate the effect of qi-nourishing essence-replenishing Chinese herbal medicine combined with chemotherapy in survival of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients with essence and qi deficiency.

    Authors: Yabin Gong, Zhenye Xu, Changjuan Jin, Haibin Deng, Zhongqi Wang, Weidong Zhou, Ming Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao and Lifang Wang
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:9
  20. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), extracellular structures composed of decondensed chromatin and antimicrobial molecules, are released in a process called NETosis. NETs, which are part of normal host defe...

    Authors: Ryan Rebernick, Lauren Fahmy, Christopher Glover, Mandar Bawadekar, Daeun Shim, Caitlyn L. Holmes, Nicole Rademacher, Hemanth Potluri, Christie M. Bartels and Miriam A. Shelef
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:7
  21. Subcellular localization of coding and non-coding RNAs has emerged as major regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in various cell types and many organisms. However, techniques that enable detection of the s...

    Authors: Natsumi Takei, Takuma Nakamura, Shohei Kawamura, Yuki Takada, Yui Satoh, Atsushi P. Kimura and Tomoya Kotani
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:6
  22. Hierarchical Sample clustering (HSC) is widely performed to examine associations within expression data obtained from microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Researchers have investigated the HSC results wit...

    Authors: Shitao Zhao, Jianqiang Sun, Kentaro Shimizu and Koji Kadota
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:5
  23. Dendritic cells (DCs), which can be used as anti-cancer vaccines, are generally obtained in vitro from isolated CD14+ monocytes (MoDCs). This generates high cell numbers and allows instructing DCs to guarantee ef...

    Authors: Graça S Marques, Zélia Silva and Paula A. Videira
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:4
  24. Apically located tight junctions in airway epithelium perform a fundamental role in controlling macromolecule migration through paracellular spaces. Alterations in their expression may lead to disruptions in b...

    Authors: Alysia G. Buckley, Kevin Looi, Thomas Iosifidis, Kak-Ming Ling, Erika N. Sutanto, Kelly M. Martinovich, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Luke W. Garratt, Nicole C. Shaw, Francis J. Lannigan, Alexander N. Larcombe, Graeme Zosky, Darryl A. Knight, Paul J. Rigby, Anthony Kicic and Stephen M. Stick
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:3
  25. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an indispensable role in cancer prevention and treatment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a key component of TCM and has been practiced for thousands of years. A numbe...

    Authors: Lijing Jiao, Ling Bi, Yan Lu, Qin Wang, Yabin Gong, Jun Shi and Ling Xu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:1
  26. Transcriptomic profiling of ex vivo cultured human limbal epithelial stem cells (hLESCs) will foster better understanding of corneal physiology and novel treatment paradigms to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSC...

    Authors: Lei Liu, Frederik Mølgaard Nielsen, Simone Elkjær Riis, Jeppe Emmersen, Trine Fink, Jesper Østergaard Hjortdal, Chris Bath and Vladimir Zachar
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:15
  27. Human trefoil factor (TFF) peptides consist of three members: TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3. TFF3 is the most abundant TFF peptide in saliva. TFF3 homodimer was suggested to be involved in apoptosis inhibition and malig...

    Authors: Saichit Khummuang, Waraporn Phanphrom, Witida Laopajon, Watchara Kasinrerk, Ponlatham Chaiyarit and Supansa Pata
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:14
  28. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful biotechnological tool for transgenic animal production using genetically modified somatic cells (GMSCs). However, there are several limitations preventing succe...

    Authors: Kiyoung Eun, Seon-Ung Hwang, Yeon Woo Jeong, Sunyoung Seo, Seon Yong Lee, Woo Suk Hwang, Sang-Hwan Hyun and Hyunggee Kim
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:13
  29. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has been widely used for studying the structure and function of proteins. A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based multiple site-directed plasmid mutagenesis method with...

    Authors: Ting-Yu Kuo, Chung-Che Tsai and Hua-Wen Fu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:12
  30. Immunotherapy is a very fast expanding field within drug discovery and, hence, rapid and inexpensive expression of antibodies would be extremely valuable. Antibodies are, however, difficult to express. Multifu...

    Authors: Xiaotian T. Fang, Dag Sehlin, Lars Lannfelt, Stina Syvänen and Greta Hultqvist
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:11
  31. Genomic loci associated with histone marks are typically analyzed by immunoprecipitation of the chromatin followed by quantitative-PCR (ChIP-qPCR) or high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). Chromatin can be eit...

    Authors: Sarah-Anne David, Benoît Piégu, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Maëlle Pannetier, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Sabine Crochet, Thierry Bordeau, Nathalie Couroussé, Aurélien Brionne, Yves Bigot, Anne Collin and Vincent Coustham
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:10
  32. Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the precursors of the gametes. During pre-natal development, PGC undergo an epigenetic reprogramming when bulk DNA demethylation occurs and is followed by sex-specific de novo m...

    Authors: Isabelle Hernandez Cantão, Renato Borges Tesser and Taiza Stumpp
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:9
  33. Whatever the target of an experiment in cell biology, cell counting and viability assessment are always computed. The Trypan Blue (TB) assay was proposed about a century ago and is still the most widely used m...

    Authors: Filippo Piccinini, Anna Tesei, Chiara Arienti and Alessandro Bevilacqua
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:8
  34. Pathological analyses and methodology has recently undergone a dramatic revolution. With the creation of tissue clearing methods such as CLARITY and CUBIC, groups can now achieve complete transparency in tissu...

    Authors: Sean J. Miller and Jeffrey D. Rothstein
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:7
  35. In vitro labelling of cells and small cell structures is a necessary step before in vivo monitoring of grafts. We modified and optimised a procedure for pancreatic islet labelling using bimodal positively char...

    Authors: Vít Herynek, Andrea Gálisová, Mangala Srinivas, Eric A. W. van Dinther, Lucie Kosinová, Jiri Ruzicka, Markéta Jirátová, Jan Kriz and Daniel Jirák
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:6
  36. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been widely used to profile genome-scale DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. However, the applications and technical performances of RRBS with different...

    Authors: Xiao-Long Yuan, Zhe Zhang, Rong-Yang Pan, Ning Gao, Xi Deng, Bin Li, Hao Zhang, Per Torp Sangild and Jia-Qi Li
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:5
  37. Immune responses combat various infectious agents by inducing inflammatory responses, antimicrobial pathways and adaptive immunity. The polygenic responses to these external stimuli are temporally and coordina...

    Authors: Peerzada Tajamul Mumtaz, Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Raashid Ahmed, Uneeb Urwat, Aadil Ayaz, Divya Shrivastava, Riaz Ahmad Shah and Nazir Ahmad Ganai
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:3
  38. DNA/RNA methylation plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and progression. Liquid biopsy makes use of cells, nucleotides and proteins released from tumor cells into body fluids to help with cancer ...

    Authors: Yan Lu, Shulin/SL Li, Shiguo/SG Zhu, Yabin/YB Gong, Jun/J Shi and Ling/ L Xu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:2
  39. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) extraction and purification are of great importance in auxin research, which is a hot topic in the plant growth and development field. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is frequently used...

    Authors: Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Xiaofei Chen, Huizhen Liu, Yueqing Hu, Wanhuang Lin and Langtao Xiao
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:1
  40. Cells are continuously exposed to changes in their environment. Endocrine systems, in particular, communicate by rhythms and feedback loops. In this study, we developed an automated system to produce such cond...

    Authors: Nicholas B. Whitticar, Elisha W. Strahler, Parthiban Rajan, Savas Kaya and Craig S. Nunemaker
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:19
  41. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a liquid-liquid fractionation technique and has gained an interest because of great potential for the extraction, separation, purification and enrichment of proteins, membran...

    Authors: Mujahid Iqbal, Yanfei Tao, Shuyu Xie, Yufei Zhu, Dongmei Chen, Xu Wang, Lingli Huang, Dapeng Peng, Adeel Sattar, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Saeed Ahmed and Zonghui Yuan
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:18
  42. The immunoprecipitation (IP) assay is a valuable molecular biology tool applied across a breadth of fields. The standard assay couples IP to immunoblotting (IP/IB), a procedure severely limited as it is not ea...

    Authors: Paolo Mita, Tenzin Lhakhang, Donghui Li, Daniel J. Eichinger, David Fenyo and Jef D. Boeke
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:16
  43. A key requirements for therapy utilizing the tissue engineering methodologies is use of techniques which have the capability to yield a high number of cells, from small tissue biopsy in a relatively short time...

    Authors: Marta Pokrywczynska, Daria Balcerczyk, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Maciej Gagat, Monika Czapiewska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Maciej Nowacki, Agata M. Gastecka, Magdalena Bodnar, Alina Grzanka, Andrzej Marszalek and Tomasz Drewa
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:17
  44. The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line barrier defence against trauma, microbial infiltration and radiation. Skin diseases can be a result of multi-systemic disease or an isolate...

    Authors: Emily Bliss, Wendy E. Heywood, Malika Benatti, Neil J. Sebire and Kevin Mills
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:15
  45. A number of integrase defective lentiviral (IDLV) packaging systems have been developed to produce integration deficient lentiviruses for gene delivery and epichromosomal expression. However, despite their gro...

    Authors: Ranjita Sengupta, Chandreyee Mukherjee, Nandita Sarkar, Zhihong Sun, Jacob Lesnik, Joseph Huang and Biao Lu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:14
  46. Satisfactory sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based analysis is a critical step in the proteomics workflow. The quality and reproducibility of sample preparation can determine the coverage and confiden...

    Authors: Maria Hernandez-Valladares, Elise Aasebø, Olav Mjaavatten, Marc Vaudel, Øystein Bruserud, Frode Berven and Frode Selheim
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:13

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