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  1. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling system used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression within a population. QS systems in Gram negative bacteria consist of transcription factors of the...

    Authors: Erin K. Shiner, Sheila Reddy, Cody Timmons, Guigen Li, Simon C. Williams and Kendra P. Rumbaugh
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610268
  2. Recombinant production and biochemical analysis of actin mutants has been hampered by the fact that actin has an absolute requirement for the eukaryotic chaperone CCT to reach its native state. We therefore ha...

    Authors: Heidi Rommelaere, Davy Waterschoot, Katrien Neirynck, Joël Vandekerckhove and Christophe Ampe
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610235
  3. The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early m...

    Authors: Neora Pick, Scott Cameron, Dorit Arad and Yossef Av-Gay
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610220
  4. A method was developed to assess the functional significance of a sequence motif in yeast Upf3p, a protein required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The motif lies at the edge of the Upf3p-Upf2p interac...

    Authors: Renee L. Shirley, M. Rachel Richards and Michael R. Culbertson
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610209
  5. Chromatin structure, determined in part by DNA methylation, is established during differentiation and prevents expression of genes unnecessary for the function of a given cell type. We reported that DNA methyl...

    Authors: Qianjin Lu and Bruce Richardson
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610189
  6. Substitution patterns among nucleotides are often assumed to be constant in phylogenetic analyses. Although variation in the average rate of substitution among sites is commonly accounted for, variation in the...

    Authors: Neeraja M. Krishnan, Sameer Z. Raina and David D. Pollock
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610180
  7. In situ hybridization with 3DNA™ dendrimers is a novel tool for detecting low levels of mRNA in tissue sections and whole embryos. Fluorescently labeled dendrimers were used to identify cells that express mRNA...

    Authors: Jacquelyn Gerhart, Michael Baytion, Jordanna Perlman, Christine Neely, Bridget Hearon, Thor Nilsen, Robert Getts, James Kadushin and Mindy George-Weinstein
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610149
  8. Imatinib (Gleevec) is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading ...

    Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Rubina T. Siddiqui and Javed A. Qureshi
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610144
  9. The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion....

    Authors: Elena Chaves-Pozo, Victoriano Mulero, José Meseguer and Alfonsa García Ayala
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610129
  10. Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) allows imaging of the structure and the assessment of the function of biological specimens in their physiological environment. In DFM, the cantilever is oscillated at a given fre...

    Authors: Ferry Kienberger, Rong Zhu, Rosita Moser, Christian Rankl, Dieter Blaas and Peter Hinterdorfer
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610120
  11. In synaptic vesicles, the estimated concentration of the excitatory amino acid glutamate is 100–150 mM. It was recently discovered that VGLUT1, previously characterized as an inorganic phosphate transporter (B...

    Authors: Søren S. L. Andersen
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610105
  12. High throughput detection of differential expression of genes is an efficient means of identifying genes and pathways that may play a role in biological systems under certain experimental conditions. There exi...

    Authors: Shirin Munir, Sushmita Singh, Kuljeet Kaur and Vivek Kapur
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610094
  13. The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a novel mitochondrial protein, is involved in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis through its mediation of the intramitochondrial transport of the ...

    Authors: Pulak R. Manna, Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi and Douglas M. Stocco
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610083
  14. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation play a vital role in the regulation of protein function. In our study of the basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor HAND1, we show that HAND...

    Authors: Victoria E. Centonze, Beth A. Firulli and Anthony B. Firulli
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610078
  15. Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cys...

    Authors: Jun Li, Wen-Bao Zhang and Donald P. McManus
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610067
  16. To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these o...

    Authors: Hans-Jürgen Stark, Axel Szabowski, Norbert E. Fusenig and Nicole Maas-Szabowski
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610055
  17. Light scattering and standard stopped-flow techniques were used to monitor rapid association of ribosomal subunits during initiation of eubacterial protein synthesis. The effects of the initiation factors IF1,...

    Authors: Ayman Antoun, Michael Y. Pavlov, Tanel Tenson and Måns Ehrenberg
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610035
  18. The UBA domain is a conserved sequence motif among polyubiquitin binding proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate a systematic, high throughput approach to identification of UBA domain-interacting proteins...

    Authors: Julia W. Pridgeon, Thangiah Geetha and Marie W. Wooten
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51228
  19. It is widely acknowledged that the presence of extracellular matrix components as substrates can drastically modulate the phenotype and gene expression of cultured cells, including tumor cells. A number of pub...

    Authors: Rosalia Sirchia, Valentina Ciacciofera and Claudio Luparello
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51222
  20. Integrin adhesion molecules have important adhesion and signaling functions. They also play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Over the past few years we have described a T cell ad...

    Authors: Raymond L. Yung, Donna Ray, Ru Ran Mo and Jun Chen
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51211
  21. The discovery of oncogenes and signal transduction pathways important for mitogenesis has triggered the development of target-specific small molecule anti-cancer compounds. As exemplified by imatinib (Gleevec)...

    Authors: Mohammad Azam, Tal Raz, Valentina Nardi, Sarah L. Opitz and George Q. Daley
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51204
  22. We developed a new 2-day protocol for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from human monocytesin vitro. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 are sufficient to generate immature...

    Authors: Bianca Obermaier, Marc Dauer, Jan Herten, Katharina Schad, Stefan Endres and Andreas Eigler
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51197
  23. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is capable of swarming over semi-solid surfaces. Although its swarming behavior shares many readily observable similarities with other swarming bacteria, t...

    Authors: Wook Kim and Michael G. Surette
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51189
  24. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity is currently believed to be one of the key immunologic mechanisms responsible for the prevention or attenuation of HIV-1 infection. The induction of CD8+ T cell activ...

    Authors: Supriya D. Mahajan, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Stanley A. Schwartz, Ram P. Chawda and Madhavan P. N. Nair
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51182
  25. The 72 kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) is a molecular chaperone that binds native protein with low affinity. These interactions can alter function of the substrate, a property known as HSP-mediated activity con...

    Authors: Xinsheng Zhang and Michael Oglesbee
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51170
  26. Assembly of DNA into chromatin allows for the formation of a barrier that protects naked DNA from protein and chemical agents geared to degrade or metabolize DNA. Chromatin assembly occurs whenever a length of...

    Authors: Troy A. A. Harkness, Terra G. Arnason, Charmaine Legrand and Ashley Lone
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51162
  27. Here we describe a detailed methodology to study the function of genes whose products function during mitosis by dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in cultured cells ofDrosophila melanogaster. This procedure is p...

    Authors: Helder Maiato, Claudio E. Sunkel and William C. Earnshaw
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51153
  28. We have developed two whole genome-scanning techniques to aid in the discovery of polymorphisms as well as horizontally acquired genes in prokaryotic organisms.First, two-dimensional bacterial genomic display (2D...

    Authors: Chad Malloff, Edie Dullaghan, Alice Li, Richard Stokes, Rachel Fernandez and Wan Lam
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51143
  29. Here we describe in more depth the previously published application of the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) in order to reliably measure low levels of nitric oxide (NO) as released from human e...

    Authors: Thomas R. Räthel, Jürgen F. Leikert, Angelika M. Vollmar and Verena M. Dirsch
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51136
  30. Shotgun phage display cloning involves construction of libraries from randomly fragmented bacterial chromosomal DNA, cloned genes, or eukaryotic cDNAs, into a phagemid vector. The library obtained consists of ...

    Authors: Karin Jacobsson, Anna Rosander, Joakim Bjerketorp and Lars Frykberg
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51123
  31. Microsatellite markers are simple sequence repeats within the mammalian genome that can be used for identifying disease loci, mapping genes of interest as well as studying segregation patterns related to meiot...

    Authors: Lara A. Underkoffler, Joelle N. Collins, Jonathan D. Choi and Rebecca J. Oakey
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51116
  32. In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes underg...

    Authors: Salvador Uribe and José G. Sampedro
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51108
  33. Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms i...

    Authors: Matthew E. Bechard, Sonya Chhatwal, Rosemarie E. Garcia and Madeline E. Rasche
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51069
  34. Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite D...

    Authors: Mikio Kato
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51063
  35. Type I interferon (IFN) gene therapy modulates the immune response leading to inflammatory heart disease following cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a murine model of post-viral myocarditis. Efficacy of diffe...

    Authors: Emmalene J. Bartlett, Vanessa S. Cull, Eva N. Mowe, Josephine P. Mansfield and Cassandra M. James
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51043
  36. Relocation into the nucleus of the yeast cytoplasmic linear plasmids was studied using a monitor plasmid pCLU1. InSaccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclearly-relocated pCLU1 replicated in a linear form (termed pTLU-t...

    Authors: Norio Gunge, Hideki Takata, Akira Matsuura and Kohsai Fukuda
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51029
  37. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can activate (in vitro) the nuclear transcription factors known as the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR). CLA was fed at 11 g CLA/kg of feed for 45d to castrated m...

    Authors: W. J. Meadus
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51020
  38. Disarmed versions of the cytotoxin ricin can deliver fused peptides into target cells leading to MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation [Smithet al. J Immunol 2002; 169:99–107]. The ricin delivery vector mus...

    Authors: Daniel C. Smith, Catherine J. Marsden, J. Michael Lord and Lynne M. Roberts
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51013
  39. Real-time PCR methodology can successfully quantitate microchimeric cell populations at a concentration of 100 microchimeric cells/100,000 host cells; however, it has not been successful in quantitating DNA fr...

    Authors: Carol M. Artlett, C. Gennaro Dito and Paul J. Christner
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:10103

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