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  1. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Microbes frequently live within multicellular, solid surface-attached assemblages termed biofilms. These microbial communities have architectural features that contribute to population heterogeneity and conseq...

    Authors: Joe J. Harrison, Howard Ceri, Jerome Yerly, Carol A. Stremick, Yaoping Hu, Robert Martinuzzi and Raymond J. Turner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81194

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  2. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is known to participate in the β-cell destruction process that occurs in diabetes. It has been described that high glucose level induces a hyperfunctional status which could provoke...

    Authors: Jose M. Mellado-Gil and Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710162

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  3. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Efficient protein folding and quality control are essential for unperturbed cell viability. Defects in these processes may lead to production of aberrant polypeptides that are either degraded leading to “loss-...

    Authors: Tatiana Soldà, Silvia Olivari and Maurizio Molinari

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710136

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  4. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in...

    Authors: Sergio Encarnación, Magdalena Hernández, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Sandra Contreras, María del Carmen Vargas and Jaime Mora

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710117

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  5. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the fiel...

    Authors: Corinne Jud, Isabelle Schmutz, Gabriele Hampp, Henrik Oster and Urs Albrecht

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710101

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  6. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We have developed a simple and effective method (Lig-PCR) for monitoring ligation reactions using PCR and primers that are common to many cloning vectors. Ligation mixtures can directly be used as templates an...

    Authors: Prafulla K. Chandra and Stephen K. Wikel

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710093

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  7. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We describe a new approach for reliably isolating one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR-quality RNA from laser captured cells retrieved from frozen sections previously subjected to immunofluorescent immunohis...

    Authors: Jack M. Gallup, Kenji Kawashima, Ginger Lucero and Mark R. Ackermann

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710070

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  8. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Mature osteoclasts, multinucleated giant cells responsible for bone resorption, are terminally differentiated cells with a short life span. Recently, we have demonstrated that osteoclast apoptosis is regulated...

    Authors: Toru Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Phillippe Bouillet, Kozo Nakamura, Andreas Strasser and Sakae Tanaka

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710048

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  9. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Angiogenesis is a complex process involving an ECM and vascular endothelial cells (EC), and is regulated by various angiogenic factors including VEGF. The ability to form a capillary/tube-like network is a spe...

    Authors: Motomu Watanabe, Yayoi Fujioka-Kaneko, Hisayuki Kobayashi, Mamoru Kiniwa, Michihiko Kuwano and Yuji Basaki

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710041

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  10. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We describe an improved, efficient and reliable method for the vapour-phase silanization of multi-barreled, ion-selective microelectrodes of which the silanized barrel(s) are to be filled with neutral liquid i...

    Authors: Jason S. T. Deveau, Michael I. Lindinger and Bernard Grodzinski

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710031

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  11. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Cell culturing, and the requisite storage of cell lines at ultra-low temperatures, is used in most laboratories studying or using eukaryotic proteomics, genomics, microarray, and RNA technologies. In this stud...

    Authors: Joe Corsini and Ethan Mann

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710026

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  12. Content type: OriginalPaper

    To assess the role of sortilin in the sorting and trafficking of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) the function of sortilin was abolished by a dominant-negative mutant and by the use of RNAi. Mutant sorti...

    Authors: Stephane Lefrancois, Maryssa Canuel, Jibin Zeng and Carlos R. Morales

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710017

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  13. Content type: OriginalPaper

    To date, breast cancer (BC) research is mainly studied with cell lines. These cells were passaged multiple times, acquiring phenotypes, additional mutations and epigenetic changes. These changes make the passa...

    Authors: Kelly E. Corcoran, Prem S. Patel and Pranela Rameshwar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710008

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  14. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling system used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression within a population. QS systems in Gram negative bacteria consist of transcription factors of the...

    Authors: Erin K. Shiner, Sheila Reddy, Cody Timmons, Guigen Li, Simon C. Williams and Kendra P. Rumbaugh

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610268

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  15. Content type: OriginalPaper

    A simple and non-radioactive technique based on O-cresolpthalein complexone assay was developed to study in vitro non-radioactive calcium (40Ca) deposition by isolated matrix vesicles. Using this technique, the e...

    Authors: Rama Garimella, Joseph B. Sipe and H. Clarke Anderson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610263

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  16. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Elucidating the mechanism of over and under expression of proteins is critical in developing a better understanding of cancer. Multiple techniques are used to examine differential expression of proteins in cel...

    Authors: Eric T. Shinohara, Dennis E. Hallahan and Bo Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610250

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  17. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Recombinant production and biochemical analysis of actin mutants has been hampered by the fact that actin has an absolute requirement for the eukaryotic chaperone CCT to reach its native state. We therefore ha...

    Authors: Heidi Rommelaere, Davy Waterschoot, Katrien Neirynck, Joël Vandekerckhove and Christophe Ampe

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610235

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  18. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early m...

    Authors: Neora Pick, Scott Cameron, Dorit Arad and Yossef Av-Gay

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610220

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  19. Content type: OriginalPaper

    A method was developed to assess the functional significance of a sequence motif in yeast Upf3p, a protein required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The motif lies at the edge of the Upf3p-Upf2p interac...

    Authors: Renee L. Shirley, M. Rachel Richards and Michael R. Culbertson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610209

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  20. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Substitution patterns among nucleotides are often assumed to be constant in phylogenetic analyses. Although variation in the average rate of substitution among sites is commonly accounted for, variation in the...

    Authors: Neeraja M. Krishnan, Sameer Z. Raina and David D. Pollock

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610180

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  21. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Leukocyte endothelial cell interaction is a fundamentally important process in many disease states. Current methods to analyze such interactions include the parallel-plate flow chamber and intravital microscop...

    Authors: Jessica L. Dunne, Adam P. Goobic, Scott T. Acton and Klaus Ley

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610173

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  22. Content type: OriginalPaper

    In situ hybridization with 3DNA™ dendrimers is a novel tool for detecting low levels of mRNA in tissue sections and whole embryos. Fluorescently labeled dendrimers were used to identify cells that express mRNA...

    Authors: Jacquelyn Gerhart, Michael Baytion, Jordanna Perlman, Christine Neely, Bridget Hearon, Thor Nilsen, Robert Getts, James Kadushin and Mindy George-Weinstein

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610149

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  23. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion....

    Authors: Elena Chaves-Pozo, Victoriano Mulero, José Meseguer and Alfonsa García Ayala

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610129

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  24. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) allows imaging of the structure and the assessment of the function of biological specimens in their physiological environment. In DFM, the cantilever is oscillated at a given fre...

    Authors: Ferry Kienberger, Rong Zhu, Rosita Moser, Christian Rankl, Dieter Blaas and Peter Hinterdorfer

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610120

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  25. Content type: OriginalPaper

    In synaptic vesicles, the estimated concentration of the excitatory amino acid glutamate is 100–150 mM. It was recently discovered that VGLUT1, previously characterized as an inorganic phosphate transporter (B...

    Authors: Søren S. L. Andersen

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610105

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  26. Content type: OriginalPaper

    High throughput detection of differential expression of genes is an efficient means of identifying genes and pathways that may play a role in biological systems under certain experimental conditions. There exi...

    Authors: Shirin Munir, Sushmita Singh, Kuljeet Kaur and Vivek Kapur

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610094

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  27. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a novel mitochondrial protein, is involved in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis through its mediation of the intramitochondrial transport of the ...

    Authors: Pulak R. Manna, Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi and Douglas M. Stocco

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610083

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  28. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation play a vital role in the regulation of protein function. In our study of the basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor HAND1, we show that HAND...

    Authors: Victoria E. Centonze, Beth A. Firulli and Anthony B. Firulli

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610078

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  29. Content type: OriginalPaper

    To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these o...

    Authors: Hans-Jürgen Stark, Axel Szabowski, Norbert E. Fusenig and Nicole Maas-Szabowski

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610055

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  30. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Light scattering and standard stopped-flow techniques were used to monitor rapid association of ribosomal subunits during initiation of eubacterial protein synthesis. The effects of the initiation factors IF1,...

    Authors: Ayman Antoun, Michael Y. Pavlov, Tanel Tenson and Måns Ehrenberg

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610035

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  31. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for expe...

    Authors: Oscar Zaragoza and Arturo Casadevall

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610010

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  32. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Chromatin structure, determined in part by DNA methylation, is established during differentiation and prevents expression of genes unnecessary for the function of a given cell type. We reported that DNA methyl...

    Authors: Qianjin Lu and Bruce Richardson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:189

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  33. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Imatinib (Gleevec) is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading ...

    Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Rubina T. Siddiqui and Javed A. Qureshi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:144

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  34. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cys...

    Authors: Jun Li, Wen-Bao Zhang and Donald P. McManus

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:67

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