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  1. The present study describes a protocol to generate heterogenous populations of neurotransmitter-producing neurons from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are bone marrow (BM)-derived cells which undergo...

    Authors: Steven J. Greco, Chunyi Zhou, Jiang-Hong Ye and Pranela Rameshwar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2008 10:101000090

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  2. The early chick embryo contains subpopulations of cells that express lineage-specific transcription factors. We have developed protocols to examine the role of these cells during development that involve label...

    Authors: Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christine Neely, Jessica Pfautz and Mindy George-Weinstein

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2008 10:101000074

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  3. Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with differe...

    Authors: David A. Liberles and Katharina Dittmar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2008 10:101066

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  4. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the enzyme responsible for the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns during cell division. DNMT1 expression is tightly regulated within the cell cycle. Our previous study s...

    Authors: Alexander Unterberger, Jérôme Torrisani and Moshe Szyf

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2008 10:101047

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  5. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl-P) serves critical roles in coenzyme A recycling and ATP synthesis. It is the intermediate of the Pta-AckA pathway that inter-converts acetyl-coenzyme A and acetate. Acetyl-P also can ...

    Authors: David H. Keating, Ana Shulla, Adam H. Klein and Alan J. Wolfe

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2008 10:101036

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  6. Calcitriol (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) induces the expression of CD14 in mononuclear phagocytes. The mechanisms accounting for this have been unclear since the promoter of CD14 does not contain a canonical vitam...

    Authors: Alireza Moeenrezakhanlou, Devki Nandan and Neil E. Reiner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2008 10:101029

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  7. Understanding mechanisms of gene regulation has broad therapeutic implications for human disease. Here we describe a novel method for generating human cell lines that serve as reporters of transcriptional acti...

    Authors: Sandra L. Fernandez, David W. Russell and Peter J. Hurlin

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91084

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  8. B cell subpopulations in the spleen have been extensively characterized phenotypically; however, biochemical properties of these cell populations following B cell antigen receptor engagement have not been full...

    Authors: Pierre Antony, Kristen Hoek, Bhaskarjyoti Sarmah and Wasif N. Khan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91073

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  9. Recent advances in redox proteomics have provided significant insight into the role of oxidative modifications in cellular signalling and metabolism. At present, these techniques rely heavily on Western blots ...

    Authors: H. Fai Poon, Laila Abdullah, Jon Reed, Sarah M. Doore, Cyndi Laird, Venkat Mathura, Michael Mullan and Fiona Crawford

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91065

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  10. In adults, hematopoiesis occurs in bone marrow (BM) through a complex process with differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to immune and blood cells. Human HSCs and their progenitors express CD34. M...

    Authors: Nitixa Patel, Marianne Castillo and Pranela Rameshwar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91056

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  11. We have developed and validated a consolidated bead-based genotyping platform, the Bioplex suspension array for simultaneous detection of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ATP-binding cass...

    Authors: Seok Hwee Koo, Tan Ching Ong, Kok Ting Chong, Caroline Guat Lay Lee, Fook Tim Chew and Edmund Jon Deoon Lee

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91027

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  12. We developed a rapid mutagenesis method based on a modification of the QuikChange® system (Stratagene) to systemically replace endogenous gene sequences with a unique similar size sequence tag. The modificatio...

    Authors: Qiwen Deng, Wensheng Luo and Michael S. Donnenberg

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91018

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  13. Suppression of gene expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a gene-specific and cost effective alternative to other gene suppression technologies. Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) generated fro...

    Authors: Hailong Wu, Anh Dinh and Yin-Yuan Mo

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91009

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  14. We have developed a system to visualize functionally activated neurons and their projections in the brain. This system utilizes a transgenic mouse, fos-tau-lacZ (FTL), which expresses the marker gene, lacZ, in ne...

    Authors: Mark Murphy, Ursula Greferath and Yvette M. Wilson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:91001

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  15. Teleost gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) consists of leucocyte populations located both intraepithelially and in the lamina propria with no structural organization. The present study aims to assess differ...

    Authors: Irene Salinas, José Meseguer and Maria Ángeles Esteban

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2007 9:43

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  16. Microbes frequently live within multicellular, solid surface-attached assemblages termed biofilms. These microbial communities have architectural features that contribute to population heterogeneity and conseq...

    Authors: Joe J. Harrison, Howard Ceri, Jerome Yerly, Carol A. Stremick, Yaoping Hu, Robert Martinuzzi and Raymond J. Turner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81194

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  17. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a commonly used validation tool for confirming gene expression results obtained from microarray analysis; however, microarray and qPCR data often result in disagreement. Th...

    Authors: Jeanine S. Morey, James C. Ryan and Frances M. Van Dolah

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81175

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  18. This paper was originally published in Biological Procedures Online (BPO) on March 23, 2006. It was brought to the attention of the journal and authors that reference 74 was incorrect. The original citation for r...

    Authors: M. B. I. Reaz, M. S. Hussain and F. Mohd-Yasin

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81163

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  19. In this work we describe protocols for the generation of gene deletions and gene replacements using a temperature sensitive plasmid in Escherichia coli O157:H7. This technology requires flanking DNA to be cloned ...

    Authors: James R. Emmerson, David L. Gally and Andrew J. Roe

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81153

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  20. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a wa...

    Authors: Jack M. Gallup and Mark R. Ackermann

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81087

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  21. Live cell fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent protein tags derived from jellyfish and coral species has been a successful tool to image proteins and dynamics in many species. Multi-colored aequorea fluoresc...

    Authors: Jianrun Xia, Song Hon H. Kim, Susan Macmillan and Ray Truant

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81063

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  22. The application of naked DNA containing type I interferon (IFN) transgenes is a promising potential therapeutic approach for controlling chronic viral infections. Herein, we detail the application of this appr...

    Authors: Bobbie Ann Austin, Cassandra M. James, Peter Härle and Daniel J. J. Carr

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81055

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  23. The Chromatin Immunoprecipiation (ChIP) provides a powerful technique for identifying the in vivo association of transcription factors with regulatory elements. However, obtaining meaningful information for promo...

    Authors: Rebecca L. Dryer and Lori R. Covey

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81044

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  24. Microtubule inhibitors such as Vinblastine and Paclitaxel are chemotherapy agents that activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint, arresting cells in mitosis and leading to cell death. The pathways that connect m...

    Authors: Hiroshi Y. Yamada and Gary J. Gorbsky

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2006 8:81036

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  25. Pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is known to participate in the β-cell destruction process that occurs in diabetes. It has been described that high glucose level induces a hyperfunctional status which could provoke...

    Authors: Jose M. Mellado-Gil and Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710162

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  26. Efficient protein folding and quality control are essential for unperturbed cell viability. Defects in these processes may lead to production of aberrant polypeptides that are either degraded leading to “loss-...

    Authors: Tatiana Soldà, Silvia Olivari and Maurizio Molinari

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710136

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  27. We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in...

    Authors: Sergio Encarnación, Magdalena Hernández, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Sandra Contreras, María del Carmen Vargas and Jaime Mora

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710117

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  28. Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the fiel...

    Authors: Corinne Jud, Isabelle Schmutz, Gabriele Hampp, Henrik Oster and Urs Albrecht

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710101

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  29. We have developed a simple and effective method (Lig-PCR) for monitoring ligation reactions using PCR and primers that are common to many cloning vectors. Ligation mixtures can directly be used as templates an...

    Authors: Prafulla K. Chandra and Stephen K. Wikel

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710093

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  30. We describe a new approach for reliably isolating one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR-quality RNA from laser captured cells retrieved from frozen sections previously subjected to immunofluorescent immunohis...

    Authors: Jack M. Gallup, Kenji Kawashima, Ginger Lucero and Mark R. Ackermann

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710070

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  31. Mature osteoclasts, multinucleated giant cells responsible for bone resorption, are terminally differentiated cells with a short life span. Recently, we have demonstrated that osteoclast apoptosis is regulated...

    Authors: Toru Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Phillippe Bouillet, Kozo Nakamura, Andreas Strasser and Sakae Tanaka

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710048

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  32. Angiogenesis is a complex process involving an ECM and vascular endothelial cells (EC), and is regulated by various angiogenic factors including VEGF. The ability to form a capillary/tube-like network is a spe...

    Authors: Motomu Watanabe, Yayoi Fujioka-Kaneko, Hisayuki Kobayashi, Mamoru Kiniwa, Michihiko Kuwano and Yuji Basaki

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710041

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  33. We describe an improved, efficient and reliable method for the vapour-phase silanization of multi-barreled, ion-selective microelectrodes of which the silanized barrel(s) are to be filled with neutral liquid i...

    Authors: Jason S. T. Deveau, Michael I. Lindinger and Bernard Grodzinski

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710031

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  34. Cell culturing, and the requisite storage of cell lines at ultra-low temperatures, is used in most laboratories studying or using eukaryotic proteomics, genomics, microarray, and RNA technologies. In this stud...

    Authors: Joe Corsini and Ethan Mann

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710026

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  35. To assess the role of sortilin in the sorting and trafficking of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) the function of sortilin was abolished by a dominant-negative mutant and by the use of RNAi. Mutant sorti...

    Authors: Stephane Lefrancois, Maryssa Canuel, Jibin Zeng and Carlos R. Morales

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710017

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  36. To date, breast cancer (BC) research is mainly studied with cell lines. These cells were passaged multiple times, acquiring phenotypes, additional mutations and epigenetic changes. These changes make the passa...

    Authors: Kelly E. Corcoran, Prem S. Patel and Pranela Rameshwar

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710008

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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  37. Leukocyte endothelial cell interaction is a fundamentally important process in many disease states. Current methods to analyze such interactions include the parallel-plate flow chamber and intravital microscop...

    Authors: Jessica L. Dunne, Adam P. Goobic, Scott T. Acton and Klaus Ley

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610173

    Content type: OriginalPaper

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