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  1. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is known to participate in the β-cell destruction process that occurs in diabetes. It has been described that high glucose level induces a hyperfunctional status which could provoke...

    Authors: Jose M. Mellado-Gil and Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710162

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  2. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in...

    Authors: Sergio Encarnación, Magdalena Hernández, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Sandra Contreras, María del Carmen Vargas and Jaime Mora

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710117

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  3. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the fiel...

    Authors: Corinne Jud, Isabelle Schmutz, Gabriele Hampp, Henrik Oster and Urs Albrecht

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2005 7:710101

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  4. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling system used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression within a population. QS systems in Gram negative bacteria consist of transcription factors of the...

    Authors: Erin K. Shiner, Sheila Reddy, Cody Timmons, Guigen Li, Simon C. Williams and Kendra P. Rumbaugh

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610268

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  5. Content type: OriginalPaper

    A simple and non-radioactive technique based on O-cresolpthalein complexone assay was developed to study in vitro non-radioactive calcium (40Ca) deposition by isolated matrix vesicles. Using this technique, the e...

    Authors: Rama Garimella, Joseph B. Sipe and H. Clarke Anderson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610263

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  6. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Elucidating the mechanism of over and under expression of proteins is critical in developing a better understanding of cancer. Multiple techniques are used to examine differential expression of proteins in cel...

    Authors: Eric T. Shinohara, Dennis E. Hallahan and Bo Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610250

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  7. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Recombinant production and biochemical analysis of actin mutants has been hampered by the fact that actin has an absolute requirement for the eukaryotic chaperone CCT to reach its native state. We therefore ha...

    Authors: Heidi Rommelaere, Davy Waterschoot, Katrien Neirynck, Joël Vandekerckhove and Christophe Ampe

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610235

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  8. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early m...

    Authors: Neora Pick, Scott Cameron, Dorit Arad and Yossef Av-Gay

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610220

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  9. Content type: OriginalPaper

    A method was developed to assess the functional significance of a sequence motif in yeast Upf3p, a protein required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The motif lies at the edge of the Upf3p-Upf2p interac...

    Authors: Renee L. Shirley, M. Rachel Richards and Michael R. Culbertson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610209

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  10. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Substitution patterns among nucleotides are often assumed to be constant in phylogenetic analyses. Although variation in the average rate of substitution among sites is commonly accounted for, variation in the...

    Authors: Neeraja M. Krishnan, Sameer Z. Raina and David D. Pollock

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610180

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  11. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Leukocyte endothelial cell interaction is a fundamentally important process in many disease states. Current methods to analyze such interactions include the parallel-plate flow chamber and intravital microscop...

    Authors: Jessica L. Dunne, Adam P. Goobic, Scott T. Acton and Klaus Ley

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610173

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  12. Content type: OriginalPaper

    In situ hybridization with 3DNA™ dendrimers is a novel tool for detecting low levels of mRNA in tissue sections and whole embryos. Fluorescently labeled dendrimers were used to identify cells that express mRNA...

    Authors: Jacquelyn Gerhart, Michael Baytion, Jordanna Perlman, Christine Neely, Bridget Hearon, Thor Nilsen, Robert Getts, James Kadushin and Mindy George-Weinstein

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610149

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  13. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion....

    Authors: Elena Chaves-Pozo, Victoriano Mulero, José Meseguer and Alfonsa García Ayala

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610129

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  14. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) allows imaging of the structure and the assessment of the function of biological specimens in their physiological environment. In DFM, the cantilever is oscillated at a given fre...

    Authors: Ferry Kienberger, Rong Zhu, Rosita Moser, Christian Rankl, Dieter Blaas and Peter Hinterdorfer

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610120

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  15. Content type: OriginalPaper

    In synaptic vesicles, the estimated concentration of the excitatory amino acid glutamate is 100–150 mM. It was recently discovered that VGLUT1, previously characterized as an inorganic phosphate transporter (B...

    Authors: Søren S. L. Andersen

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610105

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  16. Content type: OriginalPaper

    High throughput detection of differential expression of genes is an efficient means of identifying genes and pathways that may play a role in biological systems under certain experimental conditions. There exi...

    Authors: Shirin Munir, Sushmita Singh, Kuljeet Kaur and Vivek Kapur

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610094

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  17. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a novel mitochondrial protein, is involved in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis through its mediation of the intramitochondrial transport of the ...

    Authors: Pulak R. Manna, Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi and Douglas M. Stocco

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610083

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  18. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation play a vital role in the regulation of protein function. In our study of the basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor HAND1, we show that HAND...

    Authors: Victoria E. Centonze, Beth A. Firulli and Anthony B. Firulli

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610078

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  19. Content type: OriginalPaper

    To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these o...

    Authors: Hans-Jürgen Stark, Axel Szabowski, Norbert E. Fusenig and Nicole Maas-Szabowski

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610055

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  20. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Light scattering and standard stopped-flow techniques were used to monitor rapid association of ribosomal subunits during initiation of eubacterial protein synthesis. The effects of the initiation factors IF1,...

    Authors: Ayman Antoun, Michael Y. Pavlov, Tanel Tenson and Måns Ehrenberg

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610035

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  21. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Experimental modulation of capsule size is an important technique for the study of the virulence of the encapsulated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we summarize the techniques available for expe...

    Authors: Oscar Zaragoza and Arturo Casadevall

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:610010

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  22. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Chromatin structure, determined in part by DNA methylation, is established during differentiation and prevents expression of genes unnecessary for the function of a given cell type. We reported that DNA methyl...

    Authors: Qianjin Lu and Bruce Richardson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:189

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  23. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Imatinib (Gleevec) is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading ...

    Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Rubina T. Siddiqui and Javed A. Qureshi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:144

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  24. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cys...

    Authors: Jun Li, Wen-Bao Zhang and Donald P. McManus

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2004 6:67

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  25. Content type: OriginalPaper

    The discovery of oncogenes and signal transduction pathways important for mitogenesis has triggered the development of target-specific small molecule anti-cancer compounds. As exemplified by imatinib (Gleevec)...

    Authors: Mohammad Azam, Tal Raz, Valentina Nardi, Sarah L. Opitz and George Q. Daley

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51204

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  26. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We developed a new 2-day protocol for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from human monocytesin vitro. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 are sufficient to generate immature...

    Authors: Bianca Obermaier, Marc Dauer, Jan Herten, Katharina Schad, Stefan Endres and Andreas Eigler

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51197

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  27. Content type: OriginalPaper

    CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity is currently believed to be one of the key immunologic mechanisms responsible for the prevention or attenuation of HIV-1 infection. The induction of CD8+ T cell activ...

    Authors: Supriya D. Mahajan, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Stanley A. Schwartz, Ram P. Chawda and Madhavan P. N. Nair

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51182

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  28. Content type: OriginalPaper

    We have developed two whole genome-scanning techniques to aid in the discovery of polymorphisms as well as horizontally acquired genes in prokaryotic organisms.First, two-dimensional bacterial genomic display (2D...

    Authors: Chad Malloff, Edie Dullaghan, Alice Li, Richard Stokes, Rachel Fernandez and Wan Lam

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51143

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  29. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Here we describe in more depth the previously published application of the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) in order to reliably measure low levels of nitric oxide (NO) as released from human e...

    Authors: Thomas R. Räthel, Jürgen F. Leikert, Angelika M. Vollmar and Verena M. Dirsch

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51136

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  30. Content type: OriginalPaper

    In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes underg...

    Authors: Salvador Uribe and José G. Sampedro

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51108

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  31. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms i...

    Authors: Matthew E. Bechard, Sonya Chhatwal, Rosemarie E. Garcia and Madeline E. Rasche

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51069

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  32. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite D...

    Authors: Mikio Kato

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51063

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  33. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Disarmed versions of the cytotoxin ricin can deliver fused peptides into target cells leading to MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation [Smithet al. J Immunol 2002; 169:99–107]. The ricin delivery vector mus...

    Authors: Daniel C. Smith, Catherine J. Marsden, J. Michael Lord and Lynne M. Roberts

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:51013

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  34. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Real-time PCR methodology can successfully quantitate microchimeric cell populations at a concentration of 100 microchimeric cells/100,000 host cells; however, it has not been successful in quantitating DNA fr...

    Authors: Carol M. Artlett, C. Gennaro Dito and Paul J. Christner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:10103

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  35. Content type: OriginalPaper

    It is widely acknowledged that the presence of extracellular matrix components as substrates can drastically modulate the phenotype and gene expression of cultured cells, including tumor cells. A number of pub...

    Authors: Rosalia Sirchia, Valentina Ciacciofera and Claudio Luparello

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:222

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  36. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Shotgun phage display cloning involves construction of libraries from randomly fragmented bacterial chromosomal DNA, cloned genes, or eukaryotic cDNAs, into a phagemid vector. The library obtained consists of ...

    Authors: Karin Jacobsson, Anna Rosander, Joakim Bjerketorp and Lars Frykberg

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:123

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  37. Content type: OriginalPaper

    Microsatellite markers are simple sequence repeats within the mammalian genome that can be used for identifying disease loci, mapping genes of interest as well as studying segregation patterns related to meiot...

    Authors: Lara A. Underkoffler, Joelle N. Collins, Jonathan D. Choi and Rebecca J. Oakey

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2003 5:116

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