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  1. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor that affects usually children. Due to its cellular complex and osteoid formation it is very difficult to understand the mechanism behind the progressiveness of ost...

    Authors: Reji Manjunathan and Malathi Ragunathan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed ge...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:8

    Content type: Review

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  3. We have previously established technologies enabling us to engineer the Mycoplasma mycoides genome while cloned in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by genome transplantation into Mycoplasma capricolum

    Authors: Vladimir N Noskov, Li Ma, Stephen Chen and Ray-Yuan Chuang

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:6

    Content type: Methodology

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  4. The synthesis of complementary DNA (cDNA) for use in the detection of BCR-ABL1 at the Major Molecular Response (MMR) level is a well-established method used by clinical laboratories world-wide. However, the quali...

    Authors: Jianxiang Chi, Chryso Pierides, Andrie Mitsidou, Andri Miltiadou, Petroula Gerasimou and Paul Costeas

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:4

    Content type: Methodology

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  5. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) play an important role in the pathogenesis or progression of numerous diseases. Data regarding the b...

    Authors: Ergul Belge Kurutas, Yakup Gumusalan, Ali Cetinkaya and Ekrem Dogan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:3

    Content type: Research

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  6. For decades, the Vibratome served as a standard laboratory resource for sectioning fresh and fixed tissues. In skilled hands, high quality and consistent fresh unfixed tissue sections can be produced using a V...

    Authors: Hadia M Abdelaal, Hyeon O Kim, Reece Wagstaff, Ryoko Sawahata, Peter J Southern and Pamela J Skinner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:2

    Content type: Methodology

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  7. Trk/Ktr/HKT transporters probably were evolved from simple K+ channels KcsA. HKT transporters, which mediate Na+-uniport or Na+/K+-symport, maintain K+/Na+ homeostasis and increase salinity tolerance, can be clas...

    Authors: Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Wanhuang Lin, Liying Ma and Mohammed Hunayun Kabir

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:1

    Content type: Review

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:9

  8. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. The post-transcriptional regulation is influenced by these lncRNAs by interfering with the microRNA pathways, invo...

    Authors: Jinneng Cao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:42

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Expression of Concern to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:12

  9. Heterogeneity within cell populations is relevant to the onset and progression of disease, as well as development and maintenance of homeostasis. Analysis and understanding of the roles of heterogeneity in bio...

    Authors: Jordan R Yaron, Colleen P Ziegler, Thai H Tran, Honor L Glenn and Deirdre R Meldrum

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:9

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. Bioinformatics and biodegradation are two primary scientific fields in applied microbiology and biotechnology. The present review describes development of various bioinformatics tools that may be applied in th...

    Authors: Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:8

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  11. Baculoviruses have been genetically modified to express foreign genes under powerful promoters in order to accelerate their speed of killing. In this study a truncated form of cry1Ab gene derived from Bacillus th...

    Authors: Wael El-Menofy, Gamal Osman, Abdulrahman Assaeedi and Mohamed Salama

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:7

    Content type: Research

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  12. Cell-based perfusion studies have provided great insight into fluid-sensing mechanisms, such as primary cilia in the renal and vascular systems. However, the intrinsic limitations of in vitro cell culture, such a...

    Authors: Rahul M Prasad, Xingjian Jin, Wissam A AbouAlaiwi and Surya M Nauli

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:6

    Content type: Methodology

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  13. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules which regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells, and are abundant and stable in biofluids such as blood serum and plasma. As such, there has been heightened intere...

    Authors: Thomas C Roberts, Anna M L Coenen-Stass, Corinne A Betts and Matthew J A Wood

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. Utilizing mouse models provides excellent immunological and experimental tools to study oral immune responses. However for functional assays, isolating T lymphocytes from the oral tissues has proved to be chal...

    Authors: Pushpa Pandiyan, Natarajan Bhaskaran, Yifan Zhang and Aaron Weinberg

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:4

    Content type: Short report

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  15. Although genetically engineered cells have been used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against numerous proteins, no study has used them to generate mAbs against glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-ancho...

    Authors: Jiemiao Hu, Long T Vien, Xueqing Xia, Laura Bover and Shulin Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  16. A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Biological Procedures Online has been blessed by the support of h...

    Authors: Daniel Shanahan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:2

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  17. DNA methylation plays crucial roles in epigenetic gene regulation in normal development and disease pathogenesis. Efficient and accurate quantification of DNA methylation at single base resolution can greatly ...

    Authors: Yew Kok Lee, Shengnan Jin, Shiwei Duan, Yen Ching Lim, Desmond PY Ng, Xueqin Michelle Lin, George SH Yeo and Chunming Ding

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:1

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. The faithful determination of the concentration and viability of yeast cells is important for biological research as well as industry. To this end, it is important to develop an automated cell counting algorit...

    Authors: Dongpyo Hong, Gwanghee Lee, Neon Cheol Jung and Moongu Jeon

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  19. Two methods of quantifying Mitomycin C in tumor tissue are explored. A method of ultraviolet-visible absorption microscopy is developed and applied to measure the concentration of Mitomycin C in preserved mous...

    Authors: Lee MacKenzie Fischer, Juan Luis Vásquez, Julie Gehl, Gregers G Hermann and Niels B Larsen

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:12

    Content type: Methodology

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  20. Considerable research is focusing on the surface modification of titanium implants for the treatment of orthopaedic tissue injuries to increase the success of orthopaedic fixations. Chitosan is one of the natu...

    Authors: Ramona Lieder, Mariam Darai, Gissur Örlygsson and Olafur E Sigurjonsson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:11

    Content type: Methodology

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  21. The ZNF706 gene encodes a protein that belongs to the zinc finger family of proteins and was found to be highly expressed in laryngeal cancer, making the structure and function of ZNF706 worthy of investigation. ...

    Authors: Jucimara Colombo, Paola Jocelan Scarin Provazzi, Marilia Freitas Calmon, Lilian Campos Pires, Nathália Campos Rodrigues, Paulo Petl Jr, Marcelo Andrés Fossey, Fátima Pereira de Souza, Fernanda Canduri and Paula Rahal

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:10

    Content type: Research

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  22. Rapid and simultaneous splicing of multiple DNA fragments is frequently required in many recombinant DNA projects. However, former overlap extension PCRs, the most common methods for splicing DNA fragments, ar...

    Authors: Wei-Gui Luo, Hui-Zhen Liu, Wan-Huang Lin, Mohammed Humayun Kabir and Yi Su

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:9

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. Inflammatory arthritis is a chronic disease, resulting in synovitis and subchondral and bone area destruction, which can severely affect a patient’s quality of life. The most common form of inflammatory arthri...

    Authors: Shu Yang, Anne M Hollister, Elysse A Orchard, Shubnum I Chaudhery, Dmitry V Ostanin, Stephen J Lokitz and J Michael Mathis

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:8

    Content type: Methodology

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  24. The library size is critical for selection in evolutionary molecular engineering (directed evolution). Although cDNA display has become a promising in vitro display technology by overcoming the instability of mRN...

    Authors: Yuki Mochizuki, Shigefumi Kumachi, Koichi Nishigaki and Naoto Nemoto

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:7

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  25. The reliability of estimating muscle fiber cross-sectional area (measure of muscle fiber size) and fiber number from only a subset of fibers in rat hindlimb muscle cross-sections has not been systematically ev...

    Authors: Lisa Ceglia, Sathit Niramitmahapanya, Lori L Price, Susan S Harris, Roger A Fielding and Bess Dawson-Hughes

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:6

    Content type: Methodology

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  26. Specific applications and modern technologies, like non-invasive prenatal testing, non-invasive cancer diagnostic and next generation sequencing, are currently in the focus of researchers worldwide. These have...

    Authors: Tatiana Sedlackova, Gabriela Repiska, Peter Celec, Tomas Szemes and Gabriel Minarik

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:5

    Content type: Research

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  27. TALEs (transcription activator-like effectors) are powerful molecules that have broad applications in genetic and epigenetic manipulations. The simple design of TALEs, coupled with high binding predictability ...

    Authors: Claudia Uhde-Stone, Nilang Gor, Tiffany Chin, Joseph Huang and Biao Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  28. With the prompt developments of regenerative medicine, the potential clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells have attracted intense attention. However, the labor-intensive and complex manual cell s...

    Authors: Chi-Shuo Chen, Matthew Biasca, Catherine Le, Eric Y-T Chen, E Daniel Hirleman and Wei-Chun Chin

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. To explore a new method of kidney biopsy with coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose computed tomography (CT)-guidance and evaluate its accuracy, safety, and efficacy.

    Authors: Xiao-ling Pi, Zhen Tang, Li-qian Fu, Mei-hua Guo, Mei-hua Shi, Lan Chen and Zheng-ying Wan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2013 15:1

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  30. Ageing male DBA/1 mice spontaneously develop arthritis in the hind paws. We and others have demonstrated that this model shares striking features with human spondyloarthritis, in particular entheseal involveme...

    Authors: Kirsten Braem, Shea Carter and Rik J Lories

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:10

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  31. This protocol outlines and evaluates a modified scanning procedure for a customized spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging apparatus within the wild-type C57Bl/6 mouse posterior segment....

    Authors: Lee R Ferguson, Sankarathi Balaiya, Sandeep Grover and Kakarla V Chalam

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:9

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  32. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring transcription effectors that recognize specific DNA sequences and modulate gene expression. The modularity of TALEs DNA binding...

    Authors: Claudia Uhde-Stone, Joseph Huang and Biao Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:8

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  33. Adipose stem cells have a strong potential for use in cell-based therapy, but the current nucleofection technique, which relies on unknown buffers, prevents their use.

    Authors: Michael Flanagan, Jeffrey M Gimble, Gang Yu, Xueqing Xia, Bruce A Bunnell and Shulin Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Tumor cell lines that can be tracked in vivo during tumorigenesis and metastasis provide vital tools for studying the specific cellular mechanisms that mediate these processes as well as investigating therapeutic...

    Authors: Celeste Bolin, Caleb Sutherland, Ken Tawara, Jim Moselhy and Cheryl L Jorcyk

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:6

    Content type: Research

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  35. PTEN is an important tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in Cowden syndrome as well as various sporadic cancers. CpG island hypermethylation is another route to tumour suppressor gene inactivation, however, th...

    Authors: Luke B Hesson, Deborah Packham, Emily Pontzer, Pauline Funchain, Charis Eng and Robyn L Ward

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Traditional analyses of calcium homeostasis have separately quantified either calcium accumulation or release mechanisms. To define the system as a whole, however, requires multiple experimental techniques to ...

    Authors: David C McMullen, William S Kean, Ajay Verma, Jeffrey T Cole and William D Watson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:4

    Content type: Methodology

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  37. Quantifying tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been a challenge in both ecological and medical research due to the cost, time and training required of most quantification techniques. Here we present a modified Competitive...

    Authors: Amber N Stokes, Becky L Williams and Susannah S French

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:3

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  38. It is widely understood that tumor cells express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), of which many are usually in low immunogenicity; for example, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is specifically expressed on huma...

    Authors: Chen-Si Lin, Shih-Han Kao, Yu-Cheng Chen, Chi-Han Li, Yuan-Ting Hsieh, Shang-Chih Yang, Chang-Jer Wu, Ru-Ping Lee and Kuang-Wen Liao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2012 14:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. In the preparation of transgenic murine ES cells it is important to verify the construct has a single insertion, because an ectopic neomycin phosphortransferase positive selection cassette (NEO) may cause a posit...

    Authors: Cecilia Mancini, Erika Messana, Emilia Turco, Alessandro Brussino and Alfredo Brusco

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2011 13:10

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  40. A cell-counting algorithm, developed in Matlab®, was created to efficiently count migrated fluorescently-stained cells on membranes from migration assays. At each concentration of cells used (10,000, and 100,000 ...

    Authors: Baraa K Al-Khazraji, Philip J Medeiros, Nicole M Novielli and Dwayne N Jackson

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2011 13:9

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  41. We describe here a method to rapidly convert any desirable DNA fragment, as small as 100 bp, into long tandem DNA arrays up to 140 kb in size that are inserted into a microbe vector. This method includes r olling...

    Authors: Vladimir N Noskov, Nicholas CO Lee, Vladimir Larionov and Natalay Kouprina

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2011 13:8

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  42. Although yeast two-hybrid experiments are commonly used to identify protein interactions, the frequent occurrence of false negatives and false positives hampers data interpretation. Using both yeast one-hybrid...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Zabeena Merchant, Hao-Ching Hsiao, Kim L Gonzalez, Kathleen S Matthews and Sarah E Bondos

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2011 13:6

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  43. DNA isolation from C. neoformans is difficult due to a thick and resistant capsule. We have optimized a new and rapid DNA isolation method for Cryptococcus using a short urea treatment followed by a rapid method ...

    Authors: Fatma Mseddi, Mohammed Ali Jarboui, Amira Sellami, Hayet Sellami and Ali Ayadi

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2011 13:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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