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  1. The human Caco-2 cell line is a common in vitro model of the intestinal epithelial barrier. As the intestine is a major interface in cholesterol turnover and represents a non-biliary pathway for cholesterol ex...

    Authors: Verena Hiebl, Daniel Schachner, Angela Ladurner, Elke H. Heiss, Herbert Stangl and Verena M. Dirsch
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:7
  2. Serine hydrolases (SHs) are a functionally diverse family of enzymes playing pivotal roles in health and disease and have emerged as important therapeutic targets in many clinical conditions. Activity-based pr...

    Authors: Niina Aaltonen, Prosanta K. Singha, Hermina Jakupović, Thomas Wirth, Haritha Samaranayake, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Kirsi Rilla, Markku Varjosalo, Laura E. Edgington-Mitchell, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Marcin Drag, Sara Kälvälä, Eemeli Moisio, Juha R. Savinainen and Jarmo T. Laitinen
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:6
  3. The toxicity and side effects caused by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) after radical surgery for lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) lead to early termination frequently. This study was conducted to provide an objective ba...

    Authors: Qin Wang, Lijing Jiao, Shengfei Wang, Peiqi Chen, Ling Bi, Di Zhou, Jialin Yao, Jiaqi Li, Liyu Wang, Zhiwei Chen, Yingjie Jia, Ziwen Zhang, Weisheng Shen, Weirong Zhu, Jianfang Xu, Yong Gao…
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:5
  4. Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in tumor metastasis. To study cell invasion in vitro, the internal microenvironment can be simulated via the application of 3D models.

    Authors: Hui Liu, Tao Lu, Gert-Jan Kremers, Ann L. B. Seynhaeve and Timo L. M. ten Hagen
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:3
  5. A large number of studies have suggested a correlation between the status of telomeres and disease risk. High-throughput quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (HT Q-FISH) is a highly accurate telomer...

    Authors: Nuria de Pedro, María Díez, Irene García, Jorge García, Lissette Otero, Luis Fernández, Beatriz García, Rut González, Sara Rincón, Diego Pérez, Estefanía Rodríguez, Enrique Segovia and Pilar Najarro
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:2
  6. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including hyaluronic acid (HA), dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are essential components of the bone and cartilage tissues. CS isolated from the cartilage tissue o...

    Authors: Nawras Talmoudi, Noureddine Ghariani and Saloua Sadok
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2020 22:1
  7. Liver injury associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a frequent and severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and remains a major cause of transplant-related mortality. ...

    Authors: Lukun Zhou, Shuang Liu, Zhao Wang, Jianfeng Yao, Wenbin Cao, Shulian Chen, Wenjun Xie, Shuqing Feng, Yuanfu Xu, Tao Cheng, Mingzhe Han and Sizhou Feng
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:24
  8. Lysine post-translational modifications are important regulators of protein function. Proteomic and biochemical approaches have resulted in identification of several lysine modifications, including acetylation...

    Authors: Yun Wei, Wan-Jie Yang, Qi-Jun Wang, Peng-Cheng Lin, Jian-Yuan Zhao, Wei Xu, Shi-Min Zhao and Xia-Di He
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:23
  9. IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing of XBP1 is emerging as a biomarker in several disease states and is indicative of activation of the unfolded protein response sensor IRE1. Splicing of XBP1 mRNA results in t...

    Authors: Stuart Creedican, Aaron Talty, Stephen P. Fitzgerald, Afshin Samali, Ciarán Richardson, Adrienne M. Gorman and Kenneth Martin
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:22
  10. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds more than half of the world’s population. Ratooning rice is an economical alternative to the second seasonal rice, thus increasing the yield of ratooning rice is highly important.

    Authors: Qing Liu, Yi Su, Yunhua Zhu, Keqin Peng, Bin Hong, Ruozhong Wang, Mahmoud Gaballah and Langtao Xiao
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:21
  11. Mammalian gonadal development is crucial for fertility. Sexual differentiation, meiosis and gametogenesis are critical events in the process of gonadal development. Abnormalities in any of these events may cau...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Geng G. Tian, Zhuxia Zheng, Bo Li, Qinghe Xing and Ji Wu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:20
  12. Biofilms are communities of aggregated, matrix-embedded microbial cells showing a high tolerance to an in principle adequate antibiotic therapy, often resulting in treatment failure. A major challenge in the m...

    Authors: Lara Thieme, Anita Hartung, Kristina Tramm, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Klaus D. Jandt, Oliwia Makarewicz and Mathias W. Pletz
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:18
  13. The presence of residual DNA carried by biological products in the body may lead to an increased oncogenicity, infectivity, and immunomodulatory risk. Therefore, current agencies including WHO, EU, and the FDA...

    Authors: Weifeng Zheng, Lin Jiang, Qing Lei, Jun Yang, Xuefeng Gao, Wanru Wang, Yanli Zhang, Tao Kong, Qiaoli Chen and Gang Li
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:17
  14. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with important post-transcriptional regulatory functions. To reveal the function of miRNAs in vivo, the critical step is to change their expression levels in the ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Xinran Wang, Xuemei Li, Qian Pu, Chengyi Luo, Lili Xu, Xinyue Peng and Shiping Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:16
  15. Couples who carry α-thalassemia-1 deletion are at 25% risk of having a fetus with hemoglobin Bart’s hydrops fetalis. Southeast Asian deletion (−-(SEA)) is the most common type of α-thalassemia 1 among Southeas...

    Authors: Supansa Pata, Matawee Pongpaiboon, Witida Laopajon, Thongperm Munkongdee, Kittiphong Paiboonsukwong, Sakorn Pornpresert, Suthat Fucharoen and Watchara Kasinrerk
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:15
  16. Salinity as a most significant environmental challenges affects the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. In this study, the ionic and iso-osmotic effects of salt stress were investigated in Aeluropus litt...

    Authors: Farzaneh Fatemi, Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemi-petroudi, Ghorbanali Nematzadeh, Hossein Askari and Mohammad Reza Abdollahi
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:14
  17. For analysis of the tumor microenvironment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissue samples, it is desirable to obtain information about counts and distribution of different macrophage subtypes. Until n...

    Authors: Marcus Wagner, René Hänsel, Sarah Reinke, Julia Richter, Michael Altenbuchinger, Ulf-Dietrich Braumann, Rainer Spang, Markus Löffler and Wolfram Klapper
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:13
  18. Patient-derived organoids (PDO) technology represents an emerging tool for the study of tumor biology and drug responsiveness, thus being useful to design personalized medicine approaches. Despite several stud...

    Authors: S. Mazzucchelli, F. Piccotti, R. Allevi, M. Truffi, L. Sorrentino, L. Russo, M. Agozzino, L. Signati, A. Bonizzi, L. Villani and F. Corsi
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:12
  19. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a novel mechanism of tumor blood supply distinct from endothelial vessel (EV). VM is associated with malignancy, invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Hitherto a noninvasive me...

    Authors: Yue-tao Zhou, Wei-wei Cai, Yue Li, Xiao Jiang, Lei Feng, Qiao-ying Zhu, Yan-ling Liu, Yu-xiao Chen, Shuang-shuang Li, Bin Du, Florian Lang, Peng-xi Wu and Li-ying Qiu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:11
  20. It has come to the authors’ attention that the representative image of the unstimulated UMSCC1 spheroid at Day 1 in Fig. 1a was selected from the wrong data set.

    Authors: Cameron Goertzen, Denise Eymael and Marco Magalhaes
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:10

    The original article was published in Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:20

  21. A common experimental rodent model for stroke includes induction by a technique in which middle cerebral artery is transiently (MCAO-t) or permanently (MCAO-p) occluded by catheterization. However, this model ...

    Authors: Matthew Boyko, Ruslan Kuts, Benjamin F. Gruenbaum, Philip Tsenter, Julia Grinshpun, Dmitry Frank, Vladislav Zvenigorodsky, Israel Melamed, Evgeni Brotfain and Alexander Zlotnik
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:9
  22. The soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and its allies are important nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts that cause N2-fixing nodules on the roots of legumes. Chromosomal ß-glucuronidase gene (uidA) transcripti...

    Authors: Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Tai-Jung Wu and Regina Javier
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:8
  23. Antibodies are commonly used to detect or isolate proteins from biological samples. Much attention has been paid to the potential for poorly-characterized antibodies to lead to misleading results, but antibody-in...

    Authors: Marianne K. O. Grant, Samantha L. Shapiro, Karen H. Ashe, Peng Liu and Kathleen R. Zahs
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:6
  24. HER3 is the third member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR) family, and unlike its other family members, is unique due to its minimal intrinsic kinase activity. As a result, HER3 has to i...

    Authors: Xiaolong Liu, Shuang Liu, Hui Lyu, Adam I. Riker, Yamin Zhang and Bolin Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:5
  25. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized, membrane-bound structures secreted by cells and play critical roles in mediating intercellular signaling. EVs based on their size as well as mechanisms of biosynthe...

    Authors: Abir Mondal, K. A. Ashiq, Prashant Phulpagar, Divya Kumari Singh and Anjali Shiras
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:4
  26. Bone marrow derived stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a clonogenic cell population that is characterized by self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into osteoblasts, and other mesenchymal cell types. ...

    Authors: Basem M. Abdallah, Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Ashraf M. Abdel-Moneim, Nicholas Ditzel and Moustapha Kassem
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:3
  27. Long-term organotypic culture of adult tissues not only open up possibilities for studying complex structures of explants in vitro, but also can be employed e.g. to investigate pathological changes, their fing...

    Authors: Sabrina Friebe and Stefan G. Mayr
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:2
  28. Nematodes are used in many different fields of science, including environmental and biomedical research. Counting and/or estimating nematode numbers is required during research. Although being one of the most ...

    Authors: Marcelo Estrella Josende, Silvana Manske Nunes, Larissa Müller, Marlize Ferreira-Cravo, José Marìa Monserrat and Juliane Ventura-Lima
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:1
  29. Previous studies show various results obtained from different motif finders for an identical dataset. This is largely due to the fact that these tools use different strategies and possess unique features for d...

    Authors: Ngoc Tam L. Tran and Chun-Hsi Huang
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:23
  30. Tocotrienols (T3) have been shown to represent a very important part of the vitamin E family since they have opened new opportunities to prevent or treat a multitude of age-related chronic diseases. The benefi...

    Authors: Marco Malavolta, Elisa Pierpaoli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Maurizio Cardelli, Francesco Piacenza and Mauro Provinciali
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:22
  31. With the increasing discovery of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), the application of functional techniques that could have very specific, efficient, and robust effects and readouts is necessary. Here, we have ap...

    Authors: Khadijeh Zare, Milad Shademan, Mohammad M. Ghahramani Seno and Hesam Dehghani
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:21
  32. Invadopodia are actin-rich, proteolytic structures that enable cancer cell to invade into the surrounding tissues. Several in vitro invasion assays have been used in the literature ranging from directional qua...

    Authors: Cameron Goertzen, Denise Eymael and Marco Magalhaes
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:20

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2019 21:10

  33. Personalised medicine is nowadays a major objective in oncology. Molecular characterization of tumours through NGS offers the possibility to find possible therapeutic targets in a time- and cost-effective way....

    Authors: J. M. Rosa-Rosa, T Caniego-Casas, S Leskela, G Muñoz, F del Castillo, P Garrido and J Palacios
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:19
  34. Several methods for the quantification of human anti-HBs, an antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), have been developed based on enzyme reaction, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and radioactivity fo...

    Authors: Yong Won Shin, Dong-Hyung Cho, Gi Won Song and Se-Ho Kim
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:18
  35. The HER3 receptor functions as a major cause of drug resistance in cancer treatment. It is believed that therapeutic targeting of HER3 is required to improve patient outcomes. It is not clear whether a novel s...

    Authors: Hui Lyu, Jingcao Huang, Zhimin He and Bolin Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:16
  36. In vitro studies of osteoblasts traditionally use Alizarin Red as a golden standard for the detection and quantification of mineralization, which is a marker of osteoblast differentiation. However, this method...

    Authors: Anastassia Serguienko, Meng Yu Wang and Ola Myklebost
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:14
  37. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a skeletal disease of fast growing chicken and other avian species. It is characterized by an avascular and non-mineralized growth plate, which leads to a deformed tibial bone a...

    Authors: Mujahid Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Aoyun Li, Xiong Jiang, Yaping Wang, Jialu Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Wangyuan Yao, Shijin Yang and Jiakui Li
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:15
  38. Although genomic DNA isolation using the Chelex 100 resin is rapid and inexpensive, the DNA obtained by this method has a low concentration in solution and contains suspended impurities. The presence of debris...

    Authors: Utkarsha A. Singh, Mukta Kumari and Soumya Iyengar
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:12
  39. Kochia scoparia is a dicotyledonous annual herb and belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. Genetic diversity and resistance to drought stress of this plant has made it widely scattered in different regions which co...

    Authors: Leila Fahmideh and Ziba Fooladvand
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:11
  40. Gastric cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages and the outcome of the treatment is often poor. Therefore, identifyi...

    Authors: Yu-Chang Chuang, Hsin-Yi Wu, Yu-Ling Lin, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Cheng-Hsun Chuang, Ting-Yan Jian, Pin-Rong Chen, Yuan-Ching Chang, Chi-Hsin Lin, Tse-Hung Huang, Chao-Ching Wang, Yi-Lin Chan and Kuang-Wen Liao
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:10
  41. Soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) forms an endosymbiotic partnership with Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) roots which results in root nodules. The bacteria live within root nodules where the...

    Authors: Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Julia M. Mesa, Regina Javier and Feng-Xia Liu
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:8
  42. To evaluate the effect of qi-nourishing essence-replenishing Chinese herbal medicine combined with chemotherapy in survival of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) patients with essence and qi deficiency.

    Authors: Yabin Gong, Zhenye Xu, Changjuan Jin, Haibin Deng, Zhongqi Wang, Weidong Zhou, Ming Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao and Lifang Wang
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:9
  43. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), extracellular structures composed of decondensed chromatin and antimicrobial molecules, are released in a process called NETosis. NETs, which are part of normal host defe...

    Authors: Ryan Rebernick, Lauren Fahmy, Christopher Glover, Mandar Bawadekar, Daeun Shim, Caitlyn L. Holmes, Nicole Rademacher, Hemanth Potluri, Christie M. Bartels and Miriam A. Shelef
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:7
  44. Subcellular localization of coding and non-coding RNAs has emerged as major regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in various cell types and many organisms. However, techniques that enable detection of the s...

    Authors: Natsumi Takei, Takuma Nakamura, Shohei Kawamura, Yuki Takada, Yui Satoh, Atsushi P. Kimura and Tomoya Kotani
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:6
  45. Hierarchical Sample clustering (HSC) is widely performed to examine associations within expression data obtained from microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Researchers have investigated the HSC results wit...

    Authors: Shitao Zhao, Jianqiang Sun, Kentaro Shimizu and Koji Kadota
    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2018 20:5

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