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  1. Content type: Methodology

    Pathological analyses and methodology has recently undergone a dramatic revolution. With the creation of tissue clearing methods such as CLARITY and CUBIC, groups can now achieve complete transparency in tissu...

    Authors: Sean J. Miller and Jeffrey D. Rothstein

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:7

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  2. Content type: Research

    In vitro labelling of cells and small cell structures is a necessary step before in vivo monitoring of grafts. We modified and optimised a procedure for pancreatic islet labelling using bimodal positively char...

    Authors: Vít Herynek, Andrea Gálisová, Mangala Srinivas, Eric A. W. van Dinther, Lucie Kosinová, Jiri Ruzicka, Markéta Jirátová, Jan Kriz and Daniel Jirák

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:6

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  3. Content type: Research

    Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been widely used to profile genome-scale DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. However, the applications and technical performances of RRBS with different...

    Authors: Xiao-Long Yuan, Zhe Zhang, Rong-Yang Pan, Ning Gao, Xi Deng, Bin Li, Hao Zhang, Per Torp Sangild and Jia-Qi Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:5

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  4. Content type: Review

    Immune responses combat various infectious agents by inducing inflammatory responses, antimicrobial pathways and adaptive immunity. The polygenic responses to these external stimuli are temporally and coordina...

    Authors: Peerzada Tajamul Mumtaz, Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Raashid Ahmed, Uneeb Urwat, Aadil Ayaz, Divya Shrivastava, Riaz Ahmad Shah and Nazir Ahmad Ganai

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:3

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  5. Content type: Review

    DNA/RNA methylation plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and progression. Liquid biopsy makes use of cells, nucleotides and proteins released from tumor cells into body fluids to help with cancer ...

    Authors: Yan Lu, Shulin/SL Li, Shiguo/SG Zhu, Yabin/YB Gong, Jun/J Shi and Ling/ L Xu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:2

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  6. Content type: Methodology

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) extraction and purification are of great importance in auxin research, which is a hot topic in the plant growth and development field. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is frequently used...

    Authors: Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Xiaofei Chen, Huizhen Liu, Yueqing Hu, Wanhuang Lin and Langtao Xiao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:1

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    Cells are continuously exposed to changes in their environment. Endocrine systems, in particular, communicate by rhythms and feedback loops. In this study, we developed an automated system to produce such cond...

    Authors: Nicholas B. Whitticar, Elisha W. Strahler, Parthiban Rajan, Savas Kaya and Craig S. Nunemaker

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:19

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  8. Content type: Review

    Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a liquid-liquid fractionation technique and has gained an interest because of great potential for the extraction, separation, purification and enrichment of proteins, membran...

    Authors: Mujahid Iqbal, Yanfei Tao, Shuyu Xie, Yufei Zhu, Dongmei Chen, Xu Wang, Lingli Huang, Dapeng Peng, Adeel Sattar, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Saeed Ahmed and Zonghui Yuan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:18

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  9. Content type: Methodology

    The immunoprecipitation (IP) assay is a valuable molecular biology tool applied across a breadth of fields. The standard assay couples IP to immunoblotting (IP/IB), a procedure severely limited as it is not ea...

    Authors: Paolo Mita, Tenzin Lhakhang, Donghui Li, Daniel J. Eichinger, David Fenyo and Jef D. Boeke

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:16

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  10. Content type: Research

    A key requirements for therapy utilizing the tissue engineering methodologies is use of techniques which have the capability to yield a high number of cells, from small tissue biopsy in a relatively short time...

    Authors: Marta Pokrywczynska, Daria Balcerczyk, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Maciej Gagat, Monika Czapiewska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Maciej Nowacki, Agata M. Gastecka, Magdalena Bodnar, Alina Grzanka, Andrzej Marszalek and Tomasz Drewa

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:17

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  11. Content type: Methodology

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line barrier defence against trauma, microbial infiltration and radiation. Skin diseases can be a result of multi-systemic disease or an isolate...

    Authors: Emily Bliss, Wendy E. Heywood, Malika Benatti, Neil J. Sebire and Kevin Mills

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:15

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  12. Content type: Methodology

    A number of integrase defective lentiviral (IDLV) packaging systems have been developed to produce integration deficient lentiviruses for gene delivery and epichromosomal expression. However, despite their gro...

    Authors: Ranjita Sengupta, Chandreyee Mukherjee, Nandita Sarkar, Zhihong Sun, Jacob Lesnik, Joseph Huang and Biao Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:14

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  13. Content type: Methodology

    Satisfactory sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based analysis is a critical step in the proteomics workflow. The quality and reproducibility of sample preparation can determine the coverage and confiden...

    Authors: Maria Hernandez-Valladares, Elise Aasebø, Olav Mjaavatten, Marc Vaudel, Øystein Bruserud, Frode Berven and Frode Selheim

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:13

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  14. Content type: Review

    The number of species with completed genomes, including those with evidence for recent whole genome duplication events has exploded. The recently sequenced Atlantic salmon genome has been through two rounds of...

    Authors: Russell A. Hermansen, Torgeir R. Hvidsten, Simen Rød Sandve and David A. Liberles

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:11

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  15. Content type: Short report

    Endothelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EndMT) plays an essential role in cardiovascular development, and recently became an attractive therapeutic target based on evidence supporting its involvement in fibrosis a...

    Authors: Mariana T. Pinto, Dimas T. Covas, Simone Kashima and Claudia O. Rodrigues

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:10

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  16. Content type: Research

    2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon inducible enzymes that polymerizes ATP to 2’-5’-linked oligomers of adenylate (2-5As). As part of the innate immune response, these enzymes are activated b...

    Authors: Sushma M. Bhosle, Aisha Hunt and Jaideep Chaudhary

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:9

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  17. Content type: Short report

    Circular plasmid-mediated homologous recombination is commonly used for marker-less allelic replacement, exploiting the endogenous recombination machinery of the host. Common limitations of existing methods in...

    Authors: Michela Casanova, Lorenzo Pasotti, Susanna Zucca, Nicolò Politi, Ilaria Massaiu, Cinzia Calvio, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis and Paolo Magni

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:6

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    The ability to introduce site-specific mutations in bacterial pathogens is essential towards understanding their molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. This has been greatly facilitated by the genetic engineer...

    Authors: Marisa Egan, Jasmine Ramirez, Christian Xander, Chirag Upreti and Shantanu Bhatt

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:3

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  19. Content type: Short report

    One of the most notable recent advances in electron microscopy (EM) was the development of genetically-encoded EM tags, including the fluorescent flavoprotein Mini-SOG (Mini-Singlet Oxygen Generator). Mini-SOG...

    Authors: Marco Man Kin Tsui, Anri Itoh, Mohamed Amgad, Shao-Fang Wang and Toshio Sasaki

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:5

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  20. Content type: Review

    Lipases are industrial biocatalysts, which are involved in several novel reactions, occurring in aqueous medium as well as non-aqueous medium. Furthermore, they are well-known for their remarkable ability to c...

    Authors: Ashok Kumar, Kartik Dhar, Shamsher Singh Kanwar and Pankaj Kumar Arora

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:2

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  21. Content type: Research

    Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostagla...

    Authors: Meral Miraloglu, Ergul Belge Kurutas, Perihan Ozturk and Ozer Arican

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:1

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  22. Content type: Methodology

    Target selection for oncology is a crucial step in the successful development of therapeutics. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 editing of specific loci offers an alterna...

    Authors: A. R. Grassian, T. M. E. Scales, S. K. Knutson, K. W. Kuntz, N. J. McCarthy, C. E. Lowe, J. D. Moore, R. A. Copeland, H. Keilhack, J. J. Smith, J. A. Wickenden and S. Ribich

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:15

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  23. Content type: Methodology

    Thermal denaturation of probe-target hybrid is highly reproducible, and which makes probe melting point analysis reliable in the detection of mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic differences in DNA. To impr...

    Authors: Deokhwe Hur, Myoung Sug Kim, Minsik Song, Jinwook Jung and Heekyung Park

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:14

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  24. Content type: Research

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MPKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain characteristic T-x-Y motif in the activation loop region. MPKs are important signaling molecules involved in diverse s...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Nibedita Mohanta, Pratap Parida and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:13

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  25. Content type: Research

    Recently, immunotherapy has shown a lot of promise in cancer treatment and different immune cell types are involved in this endeavor. Among different immune cell populations, NK cells are also an important com...

    Authors: Chenyuan Gong, Zhongya Ni, Chao Yao, Xiaowen Zhu, Lulu Ni, Lixin Wang and Shiguo Zhu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:12

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  26. Content type: Research

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor that affects usually children. Due to its cellular complex and osteoid formation it is very difficult to understand the mechanism behind the progressiveness of ost...

    Authors: Reji Manjunathan and Malathi Ragunathan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:10

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  27. Content type: Review

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed ge...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:8

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  28. Content type: Methodology

    We have previously established technologies enabling us to engineer the Mycoplasma mycoides genome while cloned in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by genome transplantation into Mycoplasma capricolum

    Authors: Vladimir N Noskov, Li Ma, Stephen Chen and Ray-Yuan Chuang

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:6

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  29. Content type: Methodology

    The synthesis of complementary DNA (cDNA) for use in the detection of BCR-ABL1 at the Major Molecular Response (MMR) level is a well-established method used by clinical laboratories world-wide. However, the quali...

    Authors: Jianxiang Chi, Chryso Pierides, Andrie Mitsidou, Andri Miltiadou, Petroula Gerasimou and Paul Costeas

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:4

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  30. Content type: Research

    Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) play an important role in the pathogenesis or progression of numerous diseases. Data regarding the b...

    Authors: Ergul Belge Kurutas, Yakup Gumusalan, Ali Cetinkaya and Ekrem Dogan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:3

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  31. Content type: Methodology

    For decades, the Vibratome served as a standard laboratory resource for sectioning fresh and fixed tissues. In skilled hands, high quality and consistent fresh unfixed tissue sections can be produced using a V...

    Authors: Hadia M Abdelaal, Hyeon O Kim, Reece Wagstaff, Ryoko Sawahata, Peter J Southern and Pamela J Skinner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:2

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  32. Content type: Review

    Trk/Ktr/HKT transporters probably were evolved from simple K+ channels KcsA. HKT transporters, which mediate Na+-uniport or Na+/K+-symport, maintain K+/Na+ homeostasis and increase salinity tolerance, can be clas...

    Authors: Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Wanhuang Lin, Liying Ma and Mohammed Hunayun Kabir

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:1

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:9

  33. Content type: Review

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. The post-transcriptional regulation is influenced by these lncRNAs by interfering with the microRNA pathways, invo...

    Authors: Jinneng Cao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:42

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    The Expression of Concern to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:12

  34. Content type: Methodology

    Heterogeneity within cell populations is relevant to the onset and progression of disease, as well as development and maintenance of homeostasis. Analysis and understanding of the roles of heterogeneity in bio...

    Authors: Jordan R Yaron, Colleen P Ziegler, Thai H Tran, Honor L Glenn and Deirdre R Meldrum

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:9

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  35. Content type: Review

    Bioinformatics and biodegradation are two primary scientific fields in applied microbiology and biotechnology. The present review describes development of various bioinformatics tools that may be applied in th...

    Authors: Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:8

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  36. Content type: Research

    Baculoviruses have been genetically modified to express foreign genes under powerful promoters in order to accelerate their speed of killing. In this study a truncated form of cry1Ab gene derived from Bacillus th...

    Authors: Wael El-Menofy, Gamal Osman, Abdulrahman Assaeedi and Mohamed Salama

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:7

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  37. Content type: Methodology

    Cell-based perfusion studies have provided great insight into fluid-sensing mechanisms, such as primary cilia in the renal and vascular systems. However, the intrinsic limitations of in vitro cell culture, such a...

    Authors: Rahul M Prasad, Xingjian Jin, Wissam A AbouAlaiwi and Surya M Nauli

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:6

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  38. Content type: Methodology

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules which regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells, and are abundant and stable in biofluids such as blood serum and plasma. As such, there has been heightened intere...

    Authors: Thomas C Roberts, Anna M L Coenen-Stass, Corinne A Betts and Matthew J A Wood

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:5

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  39. Content type: Short report

    Utilizing mouse models provides excellent immunological and experimental tools to study oral immune responses. However for functional assays, isolating T lymphocytes from the oral tissues has proved to be chal...

    Authors: Pushpa Pandiyan, Natarajan Bhaskaran, Yifan Zhang and Aaron Weinberg

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:4

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