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  1. Immunotherapy is a very fast expanding field within drug discovery and, hence, rapid and inexpensive expression of antibodies would be extremely valuable. Antibodies are, however, difficult to express. Multifu...

    Authors: Xiaotian T. Fang, Dag Sehlin, Lars Lannfelt, Stina Syvänen and Greta Hultqvist

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:11

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Genomic loci associated with histone marks are typically analyzed by immunoprecipitation of the chromatin followed by quantitative-PCR (ChIP-qPCR) or high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). Chromatin can be eit...

    Authors: Sarah-Anne David, Benoît Piégu, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Maëlle Pannetier, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Sabine Crochet, Thierry Bordeau, Nathalie Couroussé, Aurélien Brionne, Yves Bigot, Anne Collin and Vincent Coustham

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:10

    Content type: Research

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  3. Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the precursors of the gametes. During pre-natal development, PGC undergo an epigenetic reprogramming when bulk DNA demethylation occurs and is followed by sex-specific de novo m...

    Authors: Isabelle Hernandez Cantão, Renato Borges Tesser and Taiza Stumpp

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:9

    Content type: Methodology

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  4. Whatever the target of an experiment in cell biology, cell counting and viability assessment are always computed. The Trypan Blue (TB) assay was proposed about a century ago and is still the most widely used m...

    Authors: Filippo Piccinini, Anna Tesei, Chiara Arienti and Alessandro Bevilacqua

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:8

    Content type: Methodology

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  5. Pathological analyses and methodology has recently undergone a dramatic revolution. With the creation of tissue clearing methods such as CLARITY and CUBIC, groups can now achieve complete transparency in tissu...

    Authors: Sean J. Miller and Jeffrey D. Rothstein

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  6. In vitro labelling of cells and small cell structures is a necessary step before in vivo monitoring of grafts. We modified and optimised a procedure for pancreatic islet labelling using bimodal positively char...

    Authors: Vít Herynek, Andrea Gálisová, Mangala Srinivas, Eric A. W. van Dinther, Lucie Kosinová, Jiri Ruzicka, Markéta Jirátová, Jan Kriz and Daniel Jirák

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:6

    Content type: Research

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  7. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been widely used to profile genome-scale DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. However, the applications and technical performances of RRBS with different...

    Authors: Xiao-Long Yuan, Zhe Zhang, Rong-Yang Pan, Ning Gao, Xi Deng, Bin Li, Hao Zhang, Per Torp Sangild and Jia-Qi Li

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:5

    Content type: Research

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  8. Immune responses combat various infectious agents by inducing inflammatory responses, antimicrobial pathways and adaptive immunity. The polygenic responses to these external stimuli are temporally and coordina...

    Authors: Peerzada Tajamul Mumtaz, Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Raashid Ahmed, Uneeb Urwat, Aadil Ayaz, Divya Shrivastava, Riaz Ahmad Shah and Nazir Ahmad Ganai

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:3

    Content type: Review

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  9. DNA/RNA methylation plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and progression. Liquid biopsy makes use of cells, nucleotides and proteins released from tumor cells into body fluids to help with cancer ...

    Authors: Yan Lu, Shulin/SL Li, Shiguo/SG Zhu, Yabin/YB Gong, Jun/J Shi and Ling/ L Xu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  10. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) extraction and purification are of great importance in auxin research, which is a hot topic in the plant growth and development field. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is frequently used...

    Authors: Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Xiaofei Chen, Huizhen Liu, Yueqing Hu, Wanhuang Lin and Langtao Xiao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2017 19:1

    Content type: Methodology

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  11. Cells are continuously exposed to changes in their environment. Endocrine systems, in particular, communicate by rhythms and feedback loops. In this study, we developed an automated system to produce such cond...

    Authors: Nicholas B. Whitticar, Elisha W. Strahler, Parthiban Rajan, Savas Kaya and Craig S. Nunemaker

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:19

    Content type: Methodology

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  12. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a liquid-liquid fractionation technique and has gained an interest because of great potential for the extraction, separation, purification and enrichment of proteins, membran...

    Authors: Mujahid Iqbal, Yanfei Tao, Shuyu Xie, Yufei Zhu, Dongmei Chen, Xu Wang, Lingli Huang, Dapeng Peng, Adeel Sattar, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Saeed Ahmed and Zonghui Yuan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:18

    Content type: Review

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  13. The immunoprecipitation (IP) assay is a valuable molecular biology tool applied across a breadth of fields. The standard assay couples IP to immunoblotting (IP/IB), a procedure severely limited as it is not ea...

    Authors: Paolo Mita, Tenzin Lhakhang, Donghui Li, Daniel J. Eichinger, David Fenyo and Jef D. Boeke

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:16

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. A key requirements for therapy utilizing the tissue engineering methodologies is use of techniques which have the capability to yield a high number of cells, from small tissue biopsy in a relatively short time...

    Authors: Marta Pokrywczynska, Daria Balcerczyk, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Maciej Gagat, Monika Czapiewska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Maciej Nowacki, Agata M. Gastecka, Magdalena Bodnar, Alina Grzanka, Andrzej Marszalek and Tomasz Drewa

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:17

    Content type: Research

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  15. The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line barrier defence against trauma, microbial infiltration and radiation. Skin diseases can be a result of multi-systemic disease or an isolate...

    Authors: Emily Bliss, Wendy E. Heywood, Malika Benatti, Neil J. Sebire and Kevin Mills

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:15

    Content type: Methodology

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  16. A number of integrase defective lentiviral (IDLV) packaging systems have been developed to produce integration deficient lentiviruses for gene delivery and epichromosomal expression. However, despite their gro...

    Authors: Ranjita Sengupta, Chandreyee Mukherjee, Nandita Sarkar, Zhihong Sun, Jacob Lesnik, Joseph Huang and Biao Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:14

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. Satisfactory sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based analysis is a critical step in the proteomics workflow. The quality and reproducibility of sample preparation can determine the coverage and confiden...

    Authors: Maria Hernandez-Valladares, Elise Aasebø, Olav Mjaavatten, Marc Vaudel, Øystein Bruserud, Frode Berven and Frode Selheim

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. The number of species with completed genomes, including those with evidence for recent whole genome duplication events has exploded. The recently sequenced Atlantic salmon genome has been through two rounds of...

    Authors: Russell A. Hermansen, Torgeir R. Hvidsten, Simen Rød Sandve and David A. Liberles

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:11

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  19. Endothelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EndMT) plays an essential role in cardiovascular development, and recently became an attractive therapeutic target based on evidence supporting its involvement in fibrosis a...

    Authors: Mariana T. Pinto, Dimas T. Covas, Simone Kashima and Claudia O. Rodrigues

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:10

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  20. 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon inducible enzymes that polymerizes ATP to 2’-5’-linked oligomers of adenylate (2-5As). As part of the innate immune response, these enzymes are activated b...

    Authors: Sushma M. Bhosle, Aisha Hunt and Jaideep Chaudhary

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  21. Circular plasmid-mediated homologous recombination is commonly used for marker-less allelic replacement, exploiting the endogenous recombination machinery of the host. Common limitations of existing methods in...

    Authors: Michela Casanova, Lorenzo Pasotti, Susanna Zucca, Nicolò Politi, Ilaria Massaiu, Cinzia Calvio, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis and Paolo Magni

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:6

    Content type: Short report

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  22. The ability to introduce site-specific mutations in bacterial pathogens is essential towards understanding their molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. This has been greatly facilitated by the genetic engineer...

    Authors: Marisa Egan, Jasmine Ramirez, Christian Xander, Chirag Upreti and Shantanu Bhatt

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. One of the most notable recent advances in electron microscopy (EM) was the development of genetically-encoded EM tags, including the fluorescent flavoprotein Mini-SOG (Mini-Singlet Oxygen Generator). Mini-SOG...

    Authors: Marco Man Kin Tsui, Anri Itoh, Mohamed Amgad, Shao-Fang Wang and Toshio Sasaki

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:5

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  24. Lipases are industrial biocatalysts, which are involved in several novel reactions, occurring in aqueous medium as well as non-aqueous medium. Furthermore, they are well-known for their remarkable ability to c...

    Authors: Ashok Kumar, Kartik Dhar, Shamsher Singh Kanwar and Pankaj Kumar Arora

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  25. Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostagla...

    Authors: Meral Miraloglu, Ergul Belge Kurutas, Perihan Ozturk and Ozer Arican

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Target selection for oncology is a crucial step in the successful development of therapeutics. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 editing of specific loci offers an alterna...

    Authors: A. R. Grassian, T. M. E. Scales, S. K. Knutson, K. W. Kuntz, N. J. McCarthy, C. E. Lowe, J. D. Moore, R. A. Copeland, H. Keilhack, J. J. Smith, J. A. Wickenden and S. Ribich

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:15

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  27. Thermal denaturation of probe-target hybrid is highly reproducible, and which makes probe melting point analysis reliable in the detection of mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic differences in DNA. To impr...

    Authors: Deokhwe Hur, Myoung Sug Kim, Minsik Song, Jinwook Jung and Heekyung Park

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:14

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  28. Mitogen activated protein kinases (MPKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain characteristic T-x-Y motif in the activation loop region. MPKs are important signaling molecules involved in diverse s...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Nibedita Mohanta, Pratap Parida and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Recently, immunotherapy has shown a lot of promise in cancer treatment and different immune cell types are involved in this endeavor. Among different immune cell populations, NK cells are also an important com...

    Authors: Chenyuan Gong, Zhongya Ni, Chao Yao, Xiaowen Zhu, Lulu Ni, Lixin Wang and Shiguo Zhu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor that affects usually children. Due to its cellular complex and osteoid formation it is very difficult to understand the mechanism behind the progressiveness of ost...

    Authors: Reji Manjunathan and Malathi Ragunathan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed ge...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:8

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. We have previously established technologies enabling us to engineer the Mycoplasma mycoides genome while cloned in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by genome transplantation into Mycoplasma capricolum

    Authors: Vladimir N Noskov, Li Ma, Stephen Chen and Ray-Yuan Chuang

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:6

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  33. The synthesis of complementary DNA (cDNA) for use in the detection of BCR-ABL1 at the Major Molecular Response (MMR) level is a well-established method used by clinical laboratories world-wide. However, the quali...

    Authors: Jianxiang Chi, Chryso Pierides, Andrie Mitsidou, Andri Miltiadou, Petroula Gerasimou and Paul Costeas

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:4

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  34. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) play an important role in the pathogenesis or progression of numerous diseases. Data regarding the b...

    Authors: Ergul Belge Kurutas, Yakup Gumusalan, Ali Cetinkaya and Ekrem Dogan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. For decades, the Vibratome served as a standard laboratory resource for sectioning fresh and fixed tissues. In skilled hands, high quality and consistent fresh unfixed tissue sections can be produced using a V...

    Authors: Hadia M Abdelaal, Hyeon O Kim, Reece Wagstaff, Ryoko Sawahata, Peter J Southern and Pamela J Skinner

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:2

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  36. Trk/Ktr/HKT transporters probably were evolved from simple K+ channels KcsA. HKT transporters, which mediate Na+-uniport or Na+/K+-symport, maintain K+/Na+ homeostasis and increase salinity tolerance, can be clas...

    Authors: Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Wanhuang Lin, Liying Ma and Mohammed Hunayun Kabir

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:1

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:9

  37. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. The post-transcriptional regulation is influenced by these lncRNAs by interfering with the microRNA pathways, invo...

    Authors: Jinneng Cao

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:42

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Expression of Concern to this article has been published in Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:12

  38. Heterogeneity within cell populations is relevant to the onset and progression of disease, as well as development and maintenance of homeostasis. Analysis and understanding of the roles of heterogeneity in bio...

    Authors: Jordan R Yaron, Colleen P Ziegler, Thai H Tran, Honor L Glenn and Deirdre R Meldrum

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:9

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  39. Bioinformatics and biodegradation are two primary scientific fields in applied microbiology and biotechnology. The present review describes development of various bioinformatics tools that may be applied in th...

    Authors: Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2014 16:8

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

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