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  1. Content type: Methodology

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line barrier defence against trauma, microbial infiltration and radiation. Skin diseases can be a result of multi-systemic disease or an isolate...

    Authors: Emily Bliss, Wendy E. Heywood, Malika Benatti, Neil J. Sebire and Kevin Mills

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:15

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  2. Content type: Methodology

    A number of integrase defective lentiviral (IDLV) packaging systems have been developed to produce integration deficient lentiviruses for gene delivery and epichromosomal expression. However, despite their gro...

    Authors: Ranjita Sengupta, Chandreyee Mukherjee, Nandita Sarkar, Zhihong Sun, Jacob Lesnik, Joseph Huang and Biao Lu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:14

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    Satisfactory sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based analysis is a critical step in the proteomics workflow. The quality and reproducibility of sample preparation can determine the coverage and confiden...

    Authors: Maria Hernandez-Valladares, Elise Aasebø, Olav Mjaavatten, Marc Vaudel, Øystein Bruserud, Frode Berven and Frode Selheim

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:13

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  4. Content type: Review

    The number of species with completed genomes, including those with evidence for recent whole genome duplication events has exploded. The recently sequenced Atlantic salmon genome has been through two rounds of...

    Authors: Russell A. Hermansen, Torgeir R. Hvidsten, Simen Rød Sandve and David A. Liberles

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:11

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  5. Content type: Short report

    Endothelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EndMT) plays an essential role in cardiovascular development, and recently became an attractive therapeutic target based on evidence supporting its involvement in fibrosis a...

    Authors: Mariana T. Pinto, Dimas T. Covas, Simone Kashima and Claudia O. Rodrigues

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:10

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  6. Content type: Research

    2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon inducible enzymes that polymerizes ATP to 2’-5’-linked oligomers of adenylate (2-5As). As part of the innate immune response, these enzymes are activated b...

    Authors: Sushma M. Bhosle, Aisha Hunt and Jaideep Chaudhary

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:9

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  7. Content type: Short report

    Circular plasmid-mediated homologous recombination is commonly used for marker-less allelic replacement, exploiting the endogenous recombination machinery of the host. Common limitations of existing methods in...

    Authors: Michela Casanova, Lorenzo Pasotti, Susanna Zucca, Nicolò Politi, Ilaria Massaiu, Cinzia Calvio, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis and Paolo Magni

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:6

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  8. Content type: Methodology

    The ability to introduce site-specific mutations in bacterial pathogens is essential towards understanding their molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. This has been greatly facilitated by the genetic engineer...

    Authors: Marisa Egan, Jasmine Ramirez, Christian Xander, Chirag Upreti and Shantanu Bhatt

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:3

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  9. Content type: Short report

    One of the most notable recent advances in electron microscopy (EM) was the development of genetically-encoded EM tags, including the fluorescent flavoprotein Mini-SOG (Mini-Singlet Oxygen Generator). Mini-SOG...

    Authors: Marco Man Kin Tsui, Anri Itoh, Mohamed Amgad, Shao-Fang Wang and Toshio Sasaki

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:5

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  10. Content type: Review

    Lipases are industrial biocatalysts, which are involved in several novel reactions, occurring in aqueous medium as well as non-aqueous medium. Furthermore, they are well-known for their remarkable ability to c...

    Authors: Ashok Kumar, Kartik Dhar, Shamsher Singh Kanwar and Pankaj Kumar Arora

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:2

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  11. Content type: Research

    Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostagla...

    Authors: Meral Miraloglu, Ergul Belge Kurutas, Perihan Ozturk and Ozer Arican

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2016 18:1

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  12. Content type: Methodology

    Target selection for oncology is a crucial step in the successful development of therapeutics. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 editing of specific loci offers an alterna...

    Authors: A. R. Grassian, T. M. E. Scales, S. K. Knutson, K. W. Kuntz, N. J. McCarthy, C. E. Lowe, J. D. Moore, R. A. Copeland, H. Keilhack, J. J. Smith, J. A. Wickenden and S. Ribich

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:15

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  13. Content type: Methodology

    Thermal denaturation of probe-target hybrid is highly reproducible, and which makes probe melting point analysis reliable in the detection of mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic differences in DNA. To impr...

    Authors: Deokhwe Hur, Myoung Sug Kim, Minsik Song, Jinwook Jung and Heekyung Park

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:14

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  14. Content type: Research

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MPKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain characteristic T-x-Y motif in the activation loop region. MPKs are important signaling molecules involved in diverse s...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Nibedita Mohanta, Pratap Parida and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:13

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  15. Content type: Research

    Recently, immunotherapy has shown a lot of promise in cancer treatment and different immune cell types are involved in this endeavor. Among different immune cell populations, NK cells are also an important com...

    Authors: Chenyuan Gong, Zhongya Ni, Chao Yao, Xiaowen Zhu, Lulu Ni, Lixin Wang and Shiguo Zhu

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:12

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  16. Content type: Research

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor that affects usually children. Due to its cellular complex and osteoid formation it is very difficult to understand the mechanism behind the progressiveness of ost...

    Authors: Reji Manjunathan and Malathi Ragunathan

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:10

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  17. Content type: Review

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed ge...

    Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta and Hanhong Bae

    Citation: Biological Procedures Online 2015 17:8

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