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Table 4 The radiosensitivity level of breast cancer patients, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and breast cancer patients with radiotherapy complication, using H2AX, P53bp biomarkers

From: Molecular contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to genome instability in breast cancer patients: review of radiosensitivity assays

Reference Marker Sample size Cell type Dose Result
Chua et al. 2014 [168] γH2AX/53BP1 1. BC cases (16) Lymphocyte 4 Gy Spontaneous RS
2. Healthy controls (8) X-rays BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
Residual RS (24h post-radiation)
BC cases > Healthy controls
Djuzenova et al. 2013 [169] γH2AX 1. BC cases (57) PBMC 0.5 Gy & 2 Gy Spontaneous RS
2. Healthy controls (12) X-rays BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
Initial RS (0.5 Gy, 30min post-radiation)
BC cases > Healthy controls
Residual RS (2 Gy, 24h post-radiation)
BC cases > Healthy controls
Djuzenova et al. 2013 [169] 53BP1 1. BC cases (57) PBMC 0.5 Gy & 2 Gy Spontaneous RS
2. Healthy controls (12) X-rays BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
Initial RS (0.5 Gy, 30min post-radiation)
BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
Residual (2 Gy, 24h post-radiation)
BC > Healthy controls
BRCA1 mutation carriers
Kotsopoulos et al. 2007 [13] γ -H2AX 1. Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers Lymphocyte 2 Gy Spontaneous RS
2. Non-carrier controls (25) γ-rays Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ Non-carrier controls
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ Non-carrier controls
Radiotherapy complications
Chua et al. 2014 [168] γH2AX/53BP1 1. BC cases with minimal late complication (8) Lymphocyte 4 Gy Spontaneous RS
X-rays Marked late complication ↔ Minimal late complication
2. BC cases with marked late complication (8) Residual RS (24h post-radiation)
Marked late complication > Minimal late complication
Djuzenova et al. 2013 [169] H2AX 1. BC cases with adverse acute skin reaction (6) PBMC 0.5 Gy & 2 Gy Spontaneous RS
X-rays Adverse acute skin reaction ↔ Normal skin reaction
2. BC cases with normal skin reaction (31) Initial RS (0.5 Gy, 30min)
Adverse acute skin reaction > Normal skin reaction
Residual RS (2 Gy, 24h post-radiation)
Adverse acute skin reaction > Normal skin reaction
Finnon et al. 2012 [143] H2AX 1. BC cases with marked adverse reaction (31) Lymphocyte 4 Gy Residual RS (6 h & 24h post-radiation)
X-rays Marked adverse reaction ↔
2. BC cases with mild late adverse reaction (28) Mild late adverse reaction
Chua et al. 2011 [170] γH2AX/53BP1 1. BC cases with severely marked reaction (7) Lymphocyte 0.5 and 4 Gy Initial RS (0.5 Gy, 30min post-radiation)
X-rays Severely marked reaction ↔ Minimal skin reaction
2. BC cases with minimal skin reaction (7) Residual RS (4 Gy, 24h post-radiation)
Severely marked reaction > Minimal skin reaction
  1. RS radiosensitivity, BC breast cancer, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cell, W/O without, Gr gray
  2. ↔: no significant differences at the radiosensitivity level, >: significant higher level of radiosensitivity