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Table 1 The radiosensitivity level of breast cancer patients, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and breast cancer patients with radiotherapy complication, using micronucleus assay

From: Molecular contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to genome instability in breast cancer patients: review of radiosensitivity assays

Reference Marker Sample size Cell type Radiation dose Result
Breast cancer
 Francies et al. 2019 [132] G2 MN assay 1. BC cases (34)
A. TNBC (17)
B. Luminal (17)
2. Healthy controls (17)
Lymphocyte 2 and 4 Gy
X-rays
Spontaneous RS
TNBC ↔ Healthy controls
Luminal ↔ Healthy controls
RS after radiation
2-Gy X-rays
TNBC ↔ Healthy controls
Luminal ↔ Healthy controls
4-Gy X-rays
TNBC ↔ Healthy controls
Luminal > Healthy controls
 Francies et al. 2019 [132] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (83)
A. TNBC (17)
B. Luminal (66)
2. Healthy controls (90)
Lymphocyte 2 and 4 Gy
X-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
TNBC > Healthy controls
Luminal > Healthy controls
RS after radiation
2-Gy X-rays
BC cases > Healthy controls
TNBC ↔ Healthy controls
Luminal > Healthy controls
4-Gy X-rays
BC cases > Healthy controls
TNBC ↔ Healthy controls
Luminal > Healthy controls
 Lou et al. 2008 [133] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (25)
2. Healthy controls (25)
Lymphocyte 3-Gy
X-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC case > Healthy controls
RS after radiation
BC case > Healthy controls
 Djuzenova et al. 2006 [12] G2 MN assay 1. BC cases (50)
2. Healthy controls (16)
PBMC 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy
X-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
Slope of MN induction
BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
 Varga et al (2007) [11] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (91)
2. Healthy controls (96)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
RS after radiation
BC cases > Healthy controls
 Mozdarani et al. 2005 [5] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (50)
2. Healthy controls (40)
Lymphocyte 3 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
RS after radiation
BC cases > Healthy controls
 Ban et al. 2004 [10] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (130)
2. Healthy controls (48).
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
X-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
RS after radiation
BC cases > Healthy controls
 Barber et al. (2000) [134] G2 MN assay 1. BC cases (11)
2. First degree relative of BC cases (22)
2. Healthy controls (68)
Lymphocyte 3.5 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
Relative of BC cases > Healthy controls
 Scott et al. 1999 [135] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (130)
2. Healthy controls (68)
Lymphocyte 3.5 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC cases ↔ Healthy controls
RS after radiation
BC cases > Healthy controls
 Scott et al. 1998 [136] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (39)
2. Healthy controls (42)
Lymphocyte HDR
3.5 Gy γ-rays
(dose rate 1.0 Gy min-1)
LDR
3.5 Gy γ-rays
(dose rate 0.15 Gy min-1)
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
HDR
RS after radiation
BC cases > Healthy controls
LDR
RS after radiation
BC cases > Healthy controls
BRCA1/2 mutation
 Baert et al. 2017 [137] G2 MN assay 1. Healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers (18)
2. Non-carrier subjects from BRCA1/2 families (17)
3. Healthy controls W/O family history of BC (18)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
No difference across all groups
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA2 mutation carrier > Healthy controls
Healthy BRCA2 mutation carrier ↔
Non-carrier subjects from BRCA1/2 families
 Baert et al. 2016 [130] G2 MN assay 1. Healthy BRCA1 mutations carriers (18)
2. Healthy controls W/O family history of BC (20)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ Healthy controls
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers > Healthy controls
 Gutierrez-Enriquez et al. 2011 [138] G2 MN assay 1. 21 BRCA1 carriers (12 BC and 9 Healthy)
2. 24 BRCA2 carriers (13 BC and 11 Healthy)
3. Familial BC cases W/O BRCA1/2 mutation (15)
4. 16 healthy controls W/O
familial history of BC (5 BC and 11 Healthy)
Lymphocyte Mitomycin C RS after radiation
BRCA1 carriers ↔ Healthy controls
BRCA2 carriers > Healthy controls
BRCA2 carriers > BRCA1 carriers
 Kotsopoulos et al. 2007 [13] G2 MN assay 1. Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers (25)
2. Non-carrier subjects from BRCA1 families (25)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ Non-carrier subjects
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ Non-carrier subjects
 Varga et al (2007) [11] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases (85)
2. BC cases with BRCA1 mutation (6)
3. Healthy controls (96)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC with BRCA1 mutation ↔ Healthy controls
RS after radiation
BC with BRCA1 mutation > Healthy controls
 Baeyens et al (2002) [139] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases with BRCA1/2 mutation (20)
A. BRCA1(11)
B. BRCA2 (9)
2. Healthy relative with BRCA mutation (12)
A. BRCA1 (6)
B. BRCA2 (6)
3. Healthy relative W/O BRCA mutation (10)
A. of BRCA1 (5)
B. of BRCA2 (5)
4. BC cases W/O BRCA mutation (78)
5. Healthy controls (58)
Lymphocyte HDR
2 Gy γ-rays and
3.5 Gy γ-rays
(dose rate 1.0 Gy min-1)
LDR
3.5 Gy γ-rays
(dose rate 4 mGy min-1)
Spontaneous RS
BC cases > Healthy controls
BC with BRCA1/2 mutation ↔ BC W/O BRCA1/2 mutation
Healthy relative with and W/O BRCA1/2 mutation ↔ Healthy controls
HDR & LDR
RS after radiation
BC with BRCA1/2 mutation > Healthy controls
BC with BRCA1/2 mutation ↔ BC W/O BRCA1/2 mutation
Healthy relative with BRCA1/2 mutation ↔ Healthy relative W/O BRCA1/2 mutation ↔ Healthy controls
 Trenz et al (2003) [140] G2 MN assay 1. Healthy BRCA1 mutation carrier (13)
2. Healthy controls W/O familial history of cancer (13)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ Healthy controls
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers > Healthy controls
 Trenz et al (2002) [141] G2 MN assay 1. Healthy BRCA1 mutation carrier (10)
2. Healthy BRCA2 mutation carrier (9)
3. Healthy controls W/O familial history of cancer (14)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ BRCA2 mutation carriers
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers ↔ BRCA2 mutation carriers
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers > Healthy controls
Healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers > Healthy controls
 Rothfus et al. (2000) [142] G2 MN assay 1. Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers (12)
2. Non-carrier subjects from BRCA1 families (10)
3. Healthy controls W/O history of cancer (17)
Lymphocyte 2 Gy
γ-rays
RS after radiation
Healthy BRCA1 mutation carriers> Non-carrier subjects from BRCA1 families
Non-carrier subjects from BRCA1 families ↔ Healthy controls
Radiotherapy complications
 Finnon et al. 2012 [143] G0 MN assay 1. BC cases with ASR (31)
2. BC cases with mild late adverse reaction (28)
PBMC 3.5 Gy
X-rays
RS after radiation
Marked reaction ↔ Mild late adverse reaction
 Djuzenova et al. 2006 [12] G2 MN assay 1. BC cases with ASR (9)
2. BC cases (50)
3. Healthy controls (16)
PBMC 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy
X-rays
Spontaneous RS
BC with ASR > Healthy controls
BC with ASR > BC cases
Slope of MN induction
BC with ASR > Healthy controls
BC with ASR > BC cases
 Taghavi-Dehaghani et al. 2005 [144] G0 MN assay BC cases with early reactions (15)
BC cases with late reactions (11)
Lymphocyte 4 Gy
γ-rays
Spontaneous RS
Early reactions ↔ Late reactions
RS after radiation
Early reactions > Late reactions
 Barber et al. 2000 [134] G0 MN assay HDR
ASR before radiotherapy (116)
Late reactions, 8-14 years after radiotherapy (47)
LDR
ASR before radiotherapy (73)
Late reactions, 8-14 years after radiotherapy (26)
Lymphocyte HDR
3.5 Gy γ-rays
(dose rate 1.0 Gy min-1)
LDR
3.5 Gy γ-rays
(dose rate 0.15 Gy min-1)
HDR
RS after radiation
Acute reactions before radiotherapy ↔ 8-14 years after radiotherapy
LDR
RS after radiation
Acute reactions before radiotherapy ↔ 8-14 years after radiotherapy
  1. RS radiosensitivity, MN micronucleus, BC breast cancer, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cell, HDR high dose rate, LDR low dose rate, CBMN cytokinesis-block micronucleus, ASR adverse early skin reaction, TNBC triple negative breast cancer, W/O without, Gr: gray
  2. ↔: no significant differences at the radiosensitivity level, >: significant higher level of radiosensitivity